UPSC CMS 2017 Final Results, Question Paper, Syllabus, Fees, Exam Dates, Eligibility, Exam Pattern COMBINED MEDICAL SERVICES EXAM 2017
UPSC CMS 2017 Final Results, Question Paper, Syllabus, Fees, Exam Dates, Eligibility, Exam Pattern COMBINED MEDICAL SERVICES EXAM 2017
|Date of Notification||26/04/2017|
|Date of Commencement of Examination||13/08/2017|
|Duration of Examination||One Day|
|Last Date for Receipt of Applications||19/05/2017 – 6:00pm|
|Date of Upload||26/04/2017|
|Document Type||Document||Date of Upload|
Examination Notice No.09/2017-CMS Dated 26.04.2017 (Last date for submission of applications: 19.05.2017)
COMBINED MEDICAL SERVICES EXAMINATION, 2017
(Commission’s website – www.upsc.gov.in)
- Candidates to ensure their eligibility for the examination:
The candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfil all eligibility conditions for admission to the Examination. Their admission at all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions.
Mere issue of e-Admit Card to the candidate will not imply that his candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission.
Verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents is taken up only after the candidate has qualified for Interview/Personality Test.
- How to Apply
Candidates are required to apply online by using the website www.upsconline.nic.in Brief instructions for filling up the online Application Form have been given in the Appendix-II. Detailed instructions are available on the above mentioned website.
- Last Date for submission of Applications:
The online Applications can be filled upto 19th May, 2017 till 6.00 P.M.
- The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admit Card three weeks before the commencement of the examination. The e-Admit Card will be made available in the UPSC website [www.upsc.gov.in] for downloading by candidates. No Admit Card will be sent by post. All the applicants are required to provide valid and active E-mail i.d. while filling up Online Application form as the Commission may use electronic mode for contacting them.
- Penalty for wrong answers:
Candidates should note that there will be penalty (Negative Marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the Objective Type Question Papers.
- The written examination for Combined Medical Service for two objective papers will be conducted in Computer based mode. A demo module for Computer based mode of this examination will be available on UPSC website www.upsc.gov.in at the time of the launching of e-Admit Card.
“Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.”
- FACILITATION COUNTER FOR GUIDANCE OF CANDIDATES:
In case of any guidance/information/clarification regarding their applications, candidature etc. candidates can contact UPSC’s Facilitation Counter near Gate ‘C’ of its campus in person or over Telephone No.011-23385271/011-23381125/011-23098543 on working days between 10:00 hrs and 17:00 hrs.
- Mobile Phones banned:
- Mobiles phones, Bluetooth or any other communication devices are not allowed inside the premises where the examination is being conducted. Any infringement of these instructions shall entail disciplinary action including ban from future examinations.
- Candidates are advised in their own interest not to bring any of the banned items including mobile phones/pagers or any valuable/costly items to the venue of the examination, as arrangements for safekeeping cannot be assured. Commission will not be responsible for any loss in this regard.
CANDIDATES ARE REQUIRED TO APPLY ONLINE AT www.upsconline.nic.in ONLY. NO OTHER MODE IS ALLOWED FOR
SUBMISSION OF APPLICATION
No.14/1/2016-E.I(B) : A combined examination for recruitment to the services and posts mentioned in para 2 below will be conducted by the Union Public Service Commission on the 13th August, 2017 in accordance with the Rules published by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (Dept. of Health) in the Gazette of India dated the 26th April, 2017.
Centres of Examination: The Examination will be held at the following centres:
The centres and the dates of holding the examination as mentioned above are liable to be changed at the discretion of the Commission. Applicants should note that there will be a ceiling on the number of candidates allotted to each of the centres except Chennai, Delhi, Dispur, Kolkata and Nagpur. Allotment of Centres will be on the first-apply-first-allot basis and once the capacity of a particular centre is attained, the same will be frozen. Applicants, who cannot get a centre of their choice due to ceiling, will be required to choose a Centre from the remaining ones. Applicants are, thus, advised that they may apply early so that they could get a Centre of their choice.
NB: Notwithstanding the aforesaid provision, Commission reserve the right to change the Centres at their discretion if the situation demands.”
Candidates admitted to the examination will be informed of the time table and place or places of examination.
Candidates should note that no request for change of centre will be considered/ granted.
- (a) The Services/Posts to which recruitment is to be made and the approximate number of vacancies to be filled are given below :-
|(i) Assistant Divisional Medical Officer in the Railways||–||450|
|(ii) Assistant Medical Officer in Indian Ordnance Factories|
|(iii) Junior Scale Posts in Central Health Services||–||216|
|(iv) General Duty Medical Officer in New Delhi Municipal Council||02|
|(v) General Duty Medical Gr.-II in East Delhi Municipal|
|Corporation, North Delhi Municipal Corporation and South||16|
Delhi Municipal Corporation.
The number of vacancies to be filled on the results of this examination is being finalised.
The services/posts identified for PH Categories for Combined Medical Services Examination 2017 is as under:-
- 14 (Fourteen) Vacancies of Assistant Divisional Medical Officer in the Railways are reserved for Physically Handicapped candidates belonging to Locomotor Disability or Cerebral Palsy having functional classification BL, OL, OA.
- One Vacancy of Assistant Medical Officer in Indian Ordnance Factories Health Service is reserved for PH Candidate having functional Classification OL.
- 4 (Four) Vacancies of Junior Scale Posts in Central Health Services are reserved for Physically Handicapped (PH) category i.e. the orthopedically handicapped candidates having disability in OL, OA and BL.
- NIL vacancy of General Duty Medical Officer in New Delhi Municipal Council are shown for Physically Handicapped candidates.
- 1 (one) vacancy of General Duty Medical Officer in East Delhi Municipal Corporation, North Delhi Municipal Corporation and South Delhi Municipal Corporation is reserved for Physically Handicapped (PH) category i.e. the
orthopedically handicapped/Locomotors Disability/Cerebral Palsy candidates.
The number of vacancies is liable to alteration.
Reservation will be made for candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes and Physically Disabled Categories in respect of vacancies as may be fixed by the Government.
A candidate will be eligible to get the benefit of community reservation only in case the particular caste to which the candidates belong is included in the list of reserved communities issued by the Central Government. If a candidate indicates in his/her application form for Combined Medical Service Examination that he/ she belongs to General category but subsequently writes to the Commission to change his/her category to a reserved one, such request shall not be entertained by the Commission.
While the above principle will be followed in general, there may be a few cases where there was a little gap (say 2-3 months) between the issuance of a Government Notifications enlisting a particular community in the list of any of the reserved communities and the date of submission of the application by the candidate. In such cases the request for change of community from General to Reserved may be considered by the Commission on merit.
“Candidates seeking reservation/ relaxation benefits available for SC/ST/OBC/PH/Ex-servicemen must ensure that they are entitled to such reservation/relaxation as per eligibility prescribed in the Rules/Notice. They should be in possession of all the requisite certificates in the prescribed format in support of their claim as stipulated in the Rules/ Notice for such benefits, and these certificates should be dated earlier than the due date (Closing date) of the application”
(b) A candidate may apply for admission to the examination in respect of any one or more of the services/posts mentioned in para 2 (a) above. Candidates will be required to indicate preferences for services/posts at the appropriate time. If a candidate wishes to be admitted for more than one service/post he/she need send in only one application. He/she will be required to pay the fee mentioned in para 4 below once only and will not be required to pay separate fee for each of the services/posts for which he/she applies.
- Conditions of Eligibility:
A candidate must be either:
- a Citizen of India, or
- a subject of Nepal, or
- a subject of Bhutan, or
- a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before the 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India. or
(e) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka or East African Countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire and Ethiopia or from Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.
Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) above shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.
A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him by the Government of India.
(II) Age Limit: (a) A candidate for this examination must not have attained the age of 32 years as on 1st August, 2017, i.e. the candidate must have been born not earlier than 2nd August, 1985.
(b) The upper age limit is relaxable as follows.
- Upto a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe.
- Upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates.
- Upto a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.
- Upto a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof.
- Upto a maximum of five years in the case of Ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August, 2017 and have been released (i) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st August, 2017) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or (ii) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service or (iii) on invalidment.
- Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of 5 years Military Service as on 1st August, 2017 and whose assignment has been extended beyond 5 years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and that they will be released on 3 months notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment.
- Upto a maximum of ten years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped candidates.
- The ad hoc Doctors appointed after 1.10.1984 in the Ministry of Railways will be granted relaxation in age to the extent of the period of service rendered by them as adhoc Doctors in Railways, in the light of the Supreme Court’s orders dated the 24th September, 1987 on the Writ Petitions (Nos. 822, 875, 180 & 200 of 1987 with Nos. 370, 298 & 73 of 1987 with Nos. 1165, 1328, 1619, 1735, 1275, 1457, 1087, 1034, 1263, 1294, 1327, 1349, 1370, 1353, 1400, 1451, 1504, 1564, 1650 & 1609 of
1986 and with Nos. 845 of 1986) filed by some ad-hoc Doctors of the Railways.
The Ad-hoc Doctors claiming the relaxation in upper age limit under this provision shall be required to obtain a certificate of eligibility to this effect from the Ministry of Railways and produce the same along with the Detailed Application Form by candidates who are declared qualified for Personality Test/Interview.
NOTE 1: Candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes who are also covered under any other clauses of para 3(II) (b) above, viz. those coming under the category of Ex-servicemen, persons domiciled in the State of J & K, physically handicapped etc. will be eligible for grant of cumulative age-relaxation under both the categories.
NOTE 2: The term ex-servicemen will apply to the persons who are defined as ex-servicemen in the Ex-servicemen (Re-employment in Civil Services and Posts) Rules, 1979, as amended from time to time.
NOTE 3: The age concession under Para 3(II) (b)(v) and (vi) will not be admissible to Ex-servicemen and Commissioned Officers including ECOs/SSCOs, who are released on their own request.
NOTE 4: Notwithstanding the provision of age-relaxation under para 3 (II)
(b) (vii) above, a physically handicapped candidate will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/posts to be allocated to the physically handicapped candidates by the Government.
Save as provided above the Age- Limit prescribed can in no case be relaxed.
The date of birth accepted by the Commission is that entered in the Matriculation or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or in a certificate recognised by an Indian University as equivalent to Matriculation or in an extract from a Register of Matriculates maintained by a University which must be certified by the proper authority of the University or in the Higher Secondary or an equivalent examination certificate. These certificates are required to be submitted only after the declaration of the result of the Computer based examination.
No other document relating to age like horoscopes, affidavits, birth extracts from Municipal Corporation, service records and the like will be accepted. The expression Matriculation/Higher Secondary Examination Certificate in this part of the instruction includes the alternative certificate mentioned above.
Note 1: Candidates should note that only the Date of Birth as recorded in the Matriculation/Higher Secondary Examination Certificate or an equivalent certificate as on the date of submission of applications will be
accepted by the Commission and no subsequent request for its change will be considered or granted.
Note 2 : Candidates should also note that once a Date of Birth has been claimed by them and entered in the records of the Commission for the purpose of admission to an Examination, no change will be allowed subsequently (or at any other Examination of the Commission) on any ground whatsoever.
NOTE 3: THE CANDIDATE SHOULD EXERCISE DUE CARE WHILE
ENTERING THEIR DATE OF BIRTH IN THE RESPECTIVE COLUMN OF THE
ONLINE APPLICATION FORM. IF ON VERIFICATION AT ANY SUBSEQUENT
STAGE, ANY VARIATION IS FOUND IN THEIR DATE OF BIRTH FROM THE
ONE ENTERED IN THEIR MATRICULATION OR EQUIVALENT
EXAMINATION CERTIFICATE, DISCIPLINARY ACTION WILL BE TAKEN
AGAINST THEM BY THE COMMISSION UNDER THE RULES.
(III) Educational Qualification:
For admission to the examination a candidate should have passed the written and practical parts of the final M.B.B.S. Examination.
NOTE-1: A candidate who has appeared or has yet to appear at the final M.B.B.S. Examination may also apply. Such candidates will be admitted to the examination if otherwise eligible but the admission would be deemed to be provisional and subject to cancellation, if they do not produce proof of having passed the written and practical part of the final M.B.B.S. Examination along with the detailed application which will be required to be submitted to the Commission by the candidates who qualify on the result of the Computer based examination.
Note-2: A candidate who has yet to complete the compulsory rotating internship is educationally eligible for admission to the examination but on selection he/she will be appointed only after he/she has completed the compulsory rotating internship.
(IV) Physical and Medical Standards:
Candidates must be physically and medically fit according to the physical/medical standards for the Combined Medical Services Examination 2017 as per regulations contained in Appendix III to the Rules of the Examination.
Candidates (Excepting Female/SC/ST/PH candidates who are exempted from payment of fee) are required to pay of fee of Rs. 200/- (Rupees Two Hundred only) either by depositing the money in any Branch of SBI by cash, or by using net banking facility of SBI, State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur/State Bank of Hyderabad/State Bank of Mysore/State Bank of Patiala/State Bank of Travancore or by using Visa/Master Credit/Debit Card.
Note: Application who opt for “Pay by cash” mode should print the system generated Pay-in slip during Part-II registration and deposit the fee at the counter of SBI Branch on the next working day only. “Pay by cash” mode
option will be deactivated at 23.59 hours of 18.05.2017 i.e. one day
before the closing date; however, applicants who have generated their Pay-in-slip before it is de-activated may pay at the counter of SBI Branch during banking hours on the closing date. Such applicants who are unable to pay by cash on the closing date i.e. during banking hours to SBI Branch, for reason whatsoever, even if holding a valid Pay-in-slip, will have no other offline option but to opt for online Debit/Credit Card or Internet Banking
Payment mode on the closing date i.e. till 6.00 P.M. of 19.05.2017.
Note: 2. Candidates should note that payment of examination fee can be made only through the modes prescribed above. Payment of fee through any other mode is neither valid nor acceptable. Applications submitted without the prescribed fee/mode (unless remission of fee is claimed) shall be summarily rejected.
Note: 3. Fee once paid shall not be refunded under any circumstances nor can the fee be held in reserve for any other examination or selection.
Note: 4. For the applicants in whose case payments details have not been received from the bank, they will be treated as fictitious payment cases and their applications will be rejected in the first instance. A list of all such applicants shall be made available on the Commission website within two weeks after the last day of submission of online application. The applicants shall be required to submit the proof of their fee payment within 10 days from the date of such communication either by hand or by speed post to the Commission. On receipt of documentary proof, genuine fee payment cases will be considered and their applications will be revived, if they are otherwise eligible.
ALL FEMALE CANDIDATES AND CANDIDATES BELONGING TO
SCHEDULED CASTE/SCHEDULED TRIBE/PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED
CATEGORIES ARE EXEMPTED FROM PAYMENT OF FEE. NO FEE
EXEMPTION IS, HOWEVER, AVAILABLE TO OBC CANDIDATES AND
THEY ARE REQUIRED TO PAY THE PRESCRIBED FEE IN FULL.
Physically handicapped persons are exempted from the payment of fee provided they are otherwise eligible for appointment to the Services/Posts to be filled on the results of this examination on the basis of the standards of medical fitness for these Services/Posts (including any concessions specifically extended to the physically handicapped). A physically handicapped candidate claiming age relaxation/fee concession will be required by the Commission to submit alongwith their detailed application form, a certified copy of the certificate from a Government Hospital/Medical Board in support of his/her claim for being physically handicapped.
NOTE: Notwithstanding the aforesaid provision for age relaxation/fee exemption, a physically handicapped candidate will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as
the Government or the appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/Posts to be allocated to Physically Handicapped candidates by the Government.
NB: Applications without the prescribed Fee (Unless remission of Fee is claimed) shall be summarily rejected.
- How to Apply:
- Candidates are required to apply Online by using the link upsconline.nic.in Detailed Instructions for filling up Online Applications are available on the above mentioned website.
The applicants are advised to submit only single application; however, if due to any unavoidable situation, if he/she submits another/multiple applications, then he/she must ensure that application with the higher RID is complete in all respects like applicant’s details, examination centre, photograph, signature, fee etc. The applicants who are submitting multiple applications should note that only the applications with higher RID (Registration ID) shall be entertained by the Commission and fee paid against one RID shall not be adjusted against any other RID.
- All candidates, whether already in Government Service or Government owned industrial undertakings or other similar organisations or in private employment should submit their applications online direct to the Commission.
Persons already in Government service, whether in a permanent or temporary capacity or as workcharged employees other than casual or daily rated employees or those serving under the Public Enterprises are however, required to submit an undertaking that they have informed in writing their Head of Office/Department that they have applied for the Examination. Candidates should note that in case a communication is received from their employer by the Commission withholding permission to the candidates applying for/appearing at the examination, their application shall be rejected/candidature shall be liable to be cancelled.
NOTE 1: While filling in his/her online application form, the candidate should carefully decide about his/her choice for the centre.
If any candidate appears at a centre other than the one indicated by the Commission in his/her e- Admit Card, the papers of such a candidate will not be valued and his/her candidature will be liable to cancellation.
NOTE 2: Incomplete or defective applications shall be summarily rejected. No representation or correspondence regarding such rejection shall be entertained under any circumstances.
Candidates are not required to submit hard copy of the application to the Commission at this stage.
The candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfil all the eligibility conditions for admission to the Examination. Their admission at all the stages of examination for which they are
admitted by the Commission viz. Computer based Examination and Interview/Personality Test will be purely provisional, subject to their satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions. If on verification at any time before or after the Computer based Examination or Interview/ Personality Test, it is found that they do not fulfil any of the eligibility conditions, their candidature for the examination will be cancelled by the Commission.
Candidates are requested to keep ready self attested copies of the following documents for submission to the Commission soon after the declaration of the result of the Computer based examination which is likely to be declared in the month of September/October, 2017.
- Certificate of Age.
- Certificate of Educational Qualification.
- Certificate in support of claim to belong to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and Other Backward Classes where applicable.
- Certificate in support of claim for age/fee concession, where applicable.
- Certificate in support of being physically handicapped (where applicable).
- Certificate of eligibility for grant of age relaxation for ad-hoc doctors of Ministry of Railways [Refer Para 3(II) (b) (viii)].
Immediately after the declaration of the Computer based results, successful candidates will be intimated by the Commission electronically and they shall be asked to submit Detailed Application Form (DAF) online. The successful candidates have to send the printout of this DAF with each page duly signed along with the self attested copies of the above mentioned certificates to the Commission at that time. Originals will have to be produced at the time of interview. The interview letter to the candidates may also be issued electronically. If any of their claims is found to be incorrect, they may render themselves liable to disciplinary action by the Commission in terms of Rule 11 of the Rules for the Combined Medical Services Examination, 2017, reproduced below:
A candidate who is or has been declared by the Commission to be guilty of:
- obtaining support for his candidature by any means, or
- impersonating, or
- procuring impersonation by any person, or
- submitting fabricated documents or documents which have been tampered with, or
- making statements which are incorrect or false or suppressing material information, or
- resorting to any other irregular or improper means in connection
with his/her candidature for the examination, or
- using unfair means during the examination, or
- misbehaving in any other manner in the examination hall, or
- harassing or doing bodily harm to the Staff employed by the Commission for the conduct of their examination, or
- being in possession of or using mobile phone, bluetooth or any electronic equipment or device or any other equipment capable of being used as a communication device during the examination; or
- violating any of the instructions issued to candidates along with their e-Admit Card permitting them to take the examination, or
- attempting to commit or as the case may be abetting the commission of all or any of the acts specified in the foregoing clauses, may in addition to rendering himself/herself liable to criminal prosecution be liable.
(a) to be disqualified by the Commission from the examination for which he/she is a candidate and/or
(b) to be debarred either permanently or for a specified period:-
- by the Commission from any examination or selection held by them;
- by the Central Government from any employment under them; and
(c) if he/she is already in service under Government to disciplinary action under the appropriate rules.
Provided that no penalty under this rule shall be imposed except after.
- giving the candidate an opportunity of making such representation, in writing as he/she may wish to make in that behalf; and
- taking the representation, if any, submitted by the candidate within the period allowed to him/her into consideration.
- Last date for submission of applications:
The Online Application can be filled upto 19th May, 2017 till 6.00 P.M.
- Correspondence with Commission:
The Commission will not enter into any correspondence with the candidates about their candidature except in the following cases:
(i) The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admit Card three weeks before the commencement of the examination. The e-Admit Card will be made available in the UPSC website [www.upsc.gov.in] for downloading by candidates. No Admit Card will be sent by post. For Downloading the e-Admit Card the candidate must have his/her vital parameters like RID & Date of Birth or Roll No. (if received) & date of birth or name, father’s name & Date of Birth available with him/her.
If a candidate does not receive his/her e-Admit Card or any other communication regarding his/her candidature for the examination three weeks before the commencement of the examination, he/she should at once contact the Commission.
Information in this regard can also be obtained from the Facilitation Counter located in the Commissions office either in person or over phone Nos. 011-23385271/011-23381125/011-23098543. In case no communication is received in the Commission’s Office from the candidate regarding non-receipt of his/her e-Admit Card at least two weeks before the examination, he/she himself/herself will be solely responsible for non-receipt of his/her e-Admit Card. No candidate will ordinarily be allowed to take the examination unless he/she holds an e-Admit Card for the examination. On the receipt of e-Admit Card, candidates should check it carefully and bring discrepancies/errors if any, to the notice of UPSC immediately.
The mere fact that an e-Admit Card to the Examination has been issued to a candidate, will not imply that his/her candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission or that entries made by the candidate in his/her application for the examination have been accepted by the
Commission as true and correct. Candidates may note that the Commission takes up the verification of eligibility conditions of a candidate, with reference to original documents, only after the candidate has qualified for interview/Personality Test on the results of the Computer based Examination. Unless candidature is formally confirmed by the Commission, it continues to be provisional. The decision of the Commission as to the eligibility or otherwise of a candidate for admission to the Examination shall be final. Candidates should note that the name in the e-Admit Card in some cases, may be abbreviated due to technical reasons.
- In the event of a candidate downloading more than one Admit Card from the Commission’s website, he/she should use only one of these Admit Card for appearing in the examination.
- Candidates must ensure that their e-mail ids given in their application are valid and active as the Commission may use electronic mode of communication while contacting them.
- A candidate must see that communications sent to him/her at the address stated in his/her application are redirected, if necessary. Change in address should be communicated to the Commission at the earliest opportunity. Although the Commission make every effort to take account of such changes, they cannot accept any responsibility in the matter.
- If a candidate receives an e-Admit Card in respect of some other candidate, the same should be immediately brought to the Commission’s notice with a request to issue the correct e-Admit Card. Candidates may note that they will not be allowed to take the examination on the strength of an e-Admit Card issued in respect of another candidate.
Important: All communications to the Commission should invariably contain the following particulars.
- Name and year of the examination.
- Registration ID (RID)
- Roll Number (if received)
- Name of candidate (in full and in block letters)
- Complete postal address as given in the application.
- VALID AND ACTIV E-MAIL I.D.
N.B.: (I) Communication not containing the above particulars may not be attended to.
N.B.: (ii) If a letter/communication is received from a candidate after an examination has been held and it does not give his/her full name and Roll number, it will be ignored and no action will be taken thereon.
- (iii) Candidates are strongly advised to keep a printout or soft copy of their online application for future references
- For being considered against the vacancies reserved for them, the physically handicapped person should have disability of Forty per cent (40%) or more. However, such candidates shall be required to meet one or more of the following physical requirements/abilities which may be necessary for performing the duties in the concerned Services/Posts:-
The functional classification shall be as under consistent with the requirements of the concerned Services/Posts:
CODE PHYSICAL REQUIRMENTS
- Work performed by manipulating (with Fingers)
PP 2. Work performed by pulling and pushing
- Work performed by lifting
KC 4. Work performed by kneeling and crouching
- Work performed by bending
- Work performed by sitting (on bench or chair)
ST 7. Work performed by standing
- Work performed by walking
SE 9. Work performed by seeing
- Work performed by hearing/speaking
|RW||11.||Work performed by reading and writing|
|FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION CODE FUNCTIONS|
|BL||1.||both legs affected but not arms.|
|BA||2.||both arms affected|
|a. impaired reach.|
|b. weakness of grip.|
|BLA||3.||both legs and both arms affected|
|OL||4.||one leg affected (R or L)|
|a. impaired reach.|
|b. weakness of grip.|
|OA||5.||one arm affected (R or L)|
|a. impaired reach.|
|b. weakness of grip.|
|BH||6.||stiff back and hips (cannot sit or stoop)|
|MW||7.||muscular weakness and limited physical endurance|
- the blind
PB 9. partially blind
- the deaf
PD 11. partially deaf
- As per the decision taken by the Government for increasing the access of unemployed to job opportunities, the Commission will publically disclose the scores of the candidates (obtained in the Written Examination and Interview/Personality Test) through the public portals. The disclosure will be made in respect of only those candidates who will appear in the Interview/Personality Test for the Combined Medical Service Examination and are not finally recommended for appointment. The information shared through this disclosure scheme about the non-recommended candidates may be used by other public and private recruitment agencies to appoint suitable candidates from the information made available in the public portal.
Candidates will be required to give their options at the time of Intgerview/Personality Test, while acknowledging the e-summon letter mailed to them for interview. A candidate may opt out of the scheme also and in that case his/her details will not be published by the Commission.
Besides sharing of the information of the non-recommended candidates for the examinations conducted by the Commission, the Commission will not assume any responsibility of liability for the method and manner in which information related to candidates who appear at the Commission’s Examinations/Selections is utilized by other private of public organizations.
- Withdrawal of applications:
NO REQUEST FOR WITHDRAWAL OF CANDIDATURE RECEIVED FROM A
CANDIDATE AFTER HE/SHE HAS SUBMITTED HIS APPLICATION WILL BE
ENTERTAINED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES.
- The form and manner of communication of the result of the examination to individual candidates shall be decided by the Commission in their discretion and the Commission will not enter into correspondence with them regarding the result.
- Subject to other provisions contained in this Notice, successful candidates will be considered for appointment on the basis of the order of merit assigned to them by the Commission and preferences expressed by them for various posts.
- Success in the examination confers no right to appointment unless Government are satisfied after such enquiry as may be considered necessary that the candidate having regard to his/her character and antecedents is suitable in all respects for appointment to the service. The appointment will be further subject to the candidate, satisfying the appointing authority of his/her having satisfactorily completed the compulsory rotating internship.
- A candidate must be in good mental and bodily health and free from any physical defect likely to interfere with the discharge of his/her duties as an officer of the Service. A candidate, who after such physical examination, as Government or the appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe, is found not to satisfy these requirements, will not be appointed.
- No person –
- who has entered into or contracted a marriage with a person having a spouse living; or
- who having a spouse living has entered into or contracted a marriage with any person shall be eligible for appointment of service; provided that the Central Government may if satisfied that such marriage is permissible under the personal law applicable to such person and the other party to the marriage and there are other grounds for so doing exempt any person from the operation of this rule.
- The details regarding (a) Scheme and Syllabi of the examination, (b) Instructions/Guidelines for filling up the application form, (c) Special Instructions to the candidates for objective type tests and (d) Brief particulars of the services to which recruitment is made are given in Appendix I, II, III and IV of this notice respectively.
UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
The examination shall be conducted according to the following plan:-
COMPUTER BASED EXAMINATION – (500 marks)
The candidates will take the Computer based examination in two Papers, each Paper carrying a maximum of 250 marks. Each Paper will be of two hours duration.
Personality Test: (100 Marks):
Personality test carrying 100 marks of such of the candidates who qualify on the results of the Computer based examination.
(A) Computer based Examination:
- The components and syllabus of two Papers and the weightage to different components in the two papers are given below: –
Paper I Maximum
(Code No. 1) Marks: 250
(a) General Ability 30 questions
(b) General Medicine 70 questions
(c) Paediatrics 20 questions
Total questions in Paper I = 120 (30 General Ability, 70 General Medicine and 20 Paediatrics).
Compensatory time of twenty minutes per hour shall be permitted for the candidates with locomotors disability and cerebral palsy where dominant (Writing) extremity is affected to the extent of slowing the performance of function (minimum of 40% impairment).
Syllabus of Paper-I
(a) General Ability
- Indian Society, Heritage & Culture, Polity, Economy, Human Development Indices and the Development Programmes;
- Natural Resources, their distribution, exploitation, conservation and related issues;
- Basic concepts of Ecology and Environment and their impact on health and economy;
- Impact of changing demographic trends on health, environment and society;
- Indian Agriculture, Industry, Trade, Transportation and Service Sectors;
- Natural and man made disasters and their management;
- Food adulteration, Food processing, food distribution, food storage and their relevance to public health;
(viii) Recent trends in Science and Technology.
(b) General Medicine
(General Medicine including Cardiology, Neurology, Dermatology and Psychiatry)
- Respiratory diseases
- Metabolic disorders
- Infections/Communicable Diseases a) Virus
- b) Rickets c) Bacterial d) Spirochetal e) Protozoan f) Metazoan g) Fungus
- Diseases of the skin (Dermatology)
- Musculoskelatal System
Paper II Maximum
(Code No. 2) Marks : 250
(a) Surgery 40 questions
(b) Gynaecology & 40 questions
(c) Preventive & Social 40 questions
Total questions in Paper II = 120 (40 Surgery, 40 Gynaecology & Obstetrics and 40 Preventive & Social Medicine).
Syllabus of Paper – II
(Surgery including ENT, Ophthalmology, Traumatology and Orthopaedics)
I General Surgery
- Blood vessels
- Head and neck
- Alimentary tract a) Oesophagus
- b) Stomach c) Intestines d) Anus
- e) Developmental
- Liver, Bile, Pancreas
- Abdominal wall
- Abdominal injuries
II Urological Surgery
III Neuro Surgery
IV Otorhinolaryngology E.N.T.
- Thoracic surgery
VI Orthopedic surgery
(b) GYNAECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS
- Ante-natal conditions
- Intra-natal conditions
- Post-natal conditions
- Management of normal labours or complicated labour
- Questions on applied anatomy
- Questions on applied physiology of menstruation and fertilization
- Questions on infections in genital tract
- Questions on neoplasma in the genital tract
- Questions on displacement of the uterus
III FAMILY PLANNING
- Conventional contraceptives
- D. and oral pills
- Operative procedure, sterilization and organization of programmes in the urban and rural surroundings
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy
(c) PREVENTIVE SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE
- Social and Community Medicine
II Concept of Health, Disease and Preventive Medicine
III Health Administration and Planning
IV General Epidemiology
- Demography and Health Statistics
VI Communicable Diseases
VII Environmental Health
VIII Nutrition and Health
IX Non-communicable diseases
- Occupational Health
XI Genetics and Health
XII International Health
XIII Medical Sociology and Health Education
XIV Maternal and Child Health
XV National Programmes
- The Computer based examination in both the papers will be completely of objective (Multiple choice answers) type. The question Papers (Test Booklets) will be set in English only.
- Candidates must mark the Papers themselves. In no circumstances will they be allowed the help of a scribe to mark answers for them.
- The Commission have discretion to fix qualifying marks in any or both the papers of the examination.
- Penalty for wrong answers
There will be penalty (Negative Marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the objective type question papers.
- There are four alternatives for the answers to every question. For each question for which a wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one third (0.33) of the marks assigned to that question will be deducted as
- If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answers happens to be correct and there will be same penalty as above for that question.
- If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty for that question.
- Candidates are not permitted to use calculators for answering objective type papers. They should, therefore not bring the same inside the Examination Hall.
(B) PERSONALITY TEST – (100 marks):
Candidates who qualify in the Computer based examination will be called for Interview/Personality Test to be conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. The Interview/Personality Test will carry 100 marks.
The interview for Personality Test will be intended to serve as a supplement to the Computer based examination for testing the General Knowledge and ability of the candidates in the fields of their academic study and also in the nature of a personality test to assess the candidate’s intellectual curiosity, critical powers of assimilation, balance of judgment and alertness of mind,
ability for social cohesion, integrity of character, initiative and capability for leadership.
Instructions to the candidates for filling online application
Candidates are required to apply online by using the website www.upsconline.nic.in Salient Features of the system of Online Application Form are given hereunder:
- Detailed instructions for filling up Online Applications are available on the above mentioned website.
- Candidates will be required to complete the Online Application Form containing two stages viz. Part-I and Part-II as per the instructions available in the above mentioned site through drop down menu.
- The candidates are required to pay a fee of Rs. 200/- (Rupees Two Hundred Only) [excepting SC/ST/Female/PH candidates who are exempted from payment of fee] either by depositing the money in any branch of SBI by cash or by using net banking facility of State Bank of India/State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur/State Bank of Hyderabad/State Bank of Mysore/State Bank of Patiala/State Bank of Travancore or by using any Visa/Master Credit/Debit Card.
- Before start filling up Online Application, a candidate must have his/her photograph and signature duly scanned in the .jpg format in such a manner that each file should not exceed 40 KB and must not be less than 3 KB each in size for the photograph and 1 KB for the signature.
- The Online Applications (Part I and II) can be filled from 26th April, 2017 to 19th May, 2017 till 6.00 P.M.
- Applicants should avoid submitting multiple applications. However, if due to any unavoidable circumstances any applicant submits multiple applications then he/she must ensure that the applications with higher RID is complete in all respects.
- In case of multiple applications, the applications with higher RID shall be entertained by the Commission and fee paid against one RID shall not be adjusted against any other RID.
- The applicants must ensure that while filling their application form, they are providing their valid and active E-mail IDs as the Commission may use electronic mode of communication while contacting them at different stages of examination process.
- The Applicants are advised to check their emails at regular intervals and ensure that the email address ending firstname.lastname@example.org is directed to their inbox folder and not to the SPAM folder or any other folder.
- Candidates are strongly advised to apply Online well in time without waiting for the last date for submission of Online Application.
SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES FOR OBJECTIVE TYPE
- No candidate will be allowed to leave the Test Lab during the test.
- No candidate is allowed to leave his/her seat without permission of the invigilator.
ITEMS ALLOWED AND NOT ALLOWED
- ELECTRONIC OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF CALCULATORS, LOG TABLES, SLIDE RULES, CELLULAR/Bluetooth/MOBILE
PHONES/PAGERS OR ANY OTHER EQUIPMENT CAPABLE OF BEING
USED AS A COMMUNICATION DEVICE ARE NOT ALLOWED INSIDE
THE PREMISES WHERE THE TEST IS BEING CONDUCTED. ANY
INFRINGEMENT OF THE ABOVE INSTRUCTIONS SHALL ENTAIL
DISCIPLINARY ACTION INCLUDING BAN FROM FUTURE TEST.
- Candidates are advised not to bring any valuables/costly items to the test lab, as safe keeping of the same cannot be assured. Commission will not be responsible for any loss in this regard.
INSTRUCTIONS DURING THE TEST
- Test time period is: 120 minutes i.e. 2 hours.
- Candidates to please ensure that they reach the venue of the examination by the reporting time as stipulated in the e-Admit Card failing which they will not be admitted to the examination.
- Password will be announced at 10 minutes before starting the examination. Candidates will open the secure browser and read instructions for 10 minutes. However, candidate will not be allowed to start their examination before the prescribed time even if they read instruction before time as the time is synchronized with Server. Candidates will have to enter their roll number as user ID and password announced by the invigilator in the test log in page.
- Rough worksheets will be provided to the candidates on demand.
- In the event of the Test being disrupted, the candidate should immediately inform the invigilator. The invigilator will help the candidate to re-login to the test. This will start the exam from where it had stopped.
- Numbered list of all questions will appear at the right side of the screen.
- Keep a close watch on “Time Left” while appearing for the test.
- Question once attempted, it would be final. However, answer can be changed at any time during the Test before final submission including unattempting the question using ‘de-select’ button.
- This test carries negative marking. For every wrong answer, 0.33 marks will be deducted.
- The ‘submit’ button would be activated automatically after the expire of 2 hours from the start of the examination.
- You will be automatically stopped from answering questions when the time of test is over and the test will auto-submit.
- Candidates should not carry any books, paper, mobile phone Bluetooth device or any other electronic item to the test venue. UPSC will not be responsible for the safekeeping of such item.
- Impersonation (to assume the identity of another with intent to deceive) and Plagiarism (the use and submission of other people’s work for assessment as though it were one’s own) is forbidden.
- Candidates must not, on any pretext whatsoever speak to or have any communication with any other Candidates; such communication will be regarded as a breach of the Test regulations.
- Candidates in the Test venue, who is found to have unauthorized materials in his/her possession, shall be deemed to be in breach of the test regulations. All breaches of test regulations shall be considered to constitute unfair practice. In case any candidate is found to be indulging in unfair practice, he will be debarred from this and future exams of UPSC and/or liable for disciplinary action.
- At the conclusion of the test, candidates must remain quietly seated and must not communicate with one another till the entire test time has elapsed.
- No candidate shall be permitted to leave Test Lab till expiry of the allotted time.
- No candidate shall be allowed to go to the toilet during the last 30 minutes of the Test.
- The candidate must abide by the instructions and such further instructions as may be given by Supervisor/Invigilator of the Test. If the candidate fails to do so or indulges in disorderly or improper conduct, he/she will render himself/herself liable to expulsion from the Test and/or such other punishment as the Commission may deem fit to impose.
- The candidate will furnish such necessary and correct information as may be required from him/her in the Test Lab by the Invigilator/Assistant Supervisor/Supervisor/other persons so authorized.
BRIEF PARTICULARS OF THE SERVICES
Brief particulars relating to the Services to which recruitment is being made through this examination are given below.
- Assistant Divisional MEDICAL Officer in the Railways :
(a) The post of Assistant Division al Medical Officer in the Indian Railway Medical Service is in Group ‘A” Junior Scale in level 10 of Pay Matrix (Pre Revised PB-3, Rs. 15,600-39,100/- with Grade Pay of Rs. 5,400/-) and it carries Non-Practising Allowance as per rules/orders in force from time to time. Private practice is prohibited. The candidate will be bound to observe the orders which the Ministry of Railways or any other competent authority may issue from time to time restricting or prohibiting private practice by him/her.
- A candidate will be appointed on probation for a period of One year which may be extended by the Government if considered necessary. On satisfactory completion of the probation, candidates will be eligible for confirmation in the junior scale of the Indian Railway Medical Service.
- The appointment of probationers can be terminated by one month’s notice in writing on either side during the period of probation in terms of Rule 301 (3) of the Indian Railway Establishment Code, Volume-I. Such notice is not however, required in cases of dismissal or removals as disciplinary measure after compliance with the provisions of Clause (2) of Article 311 of the Constitution and compulsory retirement due to mental or physical incapacity.
- A candidate will have to undergo training as prescribed by the Ministry of Railways and pass all the Departmental Examinations.
- A candidate will be governed by the “Contributory Pension System” effective from 01.01.2004 as per orders of the Government.
- A candidate will be eligible for leave in accordance with the leave rules as in force from time to time and applicable to officers of his/her status.
- A candidate will be eligible for free Railway Passes and Privilege Ticket Orders in accordance with the rules in force from time to time.
- A candidate will be required to pass the examination in Hindi of an approved standard within the period of probation and failure to do so shall involve liability to termination of service.
- Under the rules every person appointed to the above post shall, if so required, be liable to serve in any Defence Service or post connected with the Defence of India for a period of not less than four years including the period spent on training, if any, provided that such person –
- shall not be required to serve as aforesaid after the expiry of ten years from the date of such appointment.
- shall not ordinarily be required to serve as aforesaid after attaining the age of 45 years.
- A candidate will be governed in respect of matters specifically referred
to above as well as other matters by the provisions of the Indian Railways Establishment Code and the extant orders as amended/issued from time to time.
- A candidate will undergo Foundation Course training initially and after completion of Foundation Course, the candidate may also be posted to the Railway Health Units/Dispensaries at way side stations, ADMOs are also liable to transfer to any Railway..
- Prospects of promotion including pay scales and allowances attached to higher grades will be as per the provisions of Railway Medical Service Recruitment Rules, 2000 and the orders and instructions issued by the Ministry of Railway from time to time.
- Duties and Responsibilities:
Assistant Divisional Medical Officers
- He will attend the indoor wards and out patient department daily and as required.
- He will carry out physical examination of candidates and of employees in service in accordance with the regulations in force.
- He will look after family planning, public health and sanitation in his jurisdiction.
- He will carry out examination of vendors.
- He will be responsible for discipline and proper discharge of duties of the Hospital Health Unit Staff.
- He will carry out duties assigned to him specially if any and will prepare returns and indents connected with his speciality.
- He will maintain and upkeep all equipments in his charge.
Note 1: When an ADMO is posted at the Headquarters of a division under the charge of a CMS/Addl.CMS/MS Incharge he will assist the CMS/Addl.CMS/MS Incharge in all his duties but may be specially assigned with certain duties and responsibilities.
Note 2: ADMOs will also be required to perform such other duties as may be assigned to them from time to time.
- Posts of Assistant Medical Officer in the Indian Ordnance Factories Health Service under the Ministry of Defence.
- The Post are temporary in Group A but likely to be made permanent in due course.
- Pay level 10 of the pay matrix plus NPA (as per rate and rules in vogue and as amended from time to time.
- Promotional avenues to higher grades are available as per the provisions of IOFHS rules and the orders issued by the Government from time to time.
- The Candidate can be posted in any of the Ordnance Factory Hospitals or dispensaries in the country. These are currently situated in the following locations Andhra Pradesh-Yeddumailaram; Bihar-Nalanda; Chandigarh; Madhya Pradesh-Jabalpur Itarsi, Katni; Maharashtra-Ambernath, Pune, Nagpur, Bhandara, Bhusawal, Chandarpur, Dehu Road, Varangaon, Uttar Pradesh- Kanpur, Muradnagar, Shajahanpur, Hazratpur, Korwah; Tamil Nadu- Chennai, Tiruchirapalli, Aruvankadu; West Bengal-Kolkata; Utttaranchal, Dehradun; Odisha-Bolangir.
- The candidates will be on probation for a period of 2 yeas form the date of appointment which may be curtailed or extended at the discretion of the competent Authority. On satisfactory completion of the probation period he will continue in the temporary post till confirmed against the permanent vacancy.
- The appointment can be terminated on one month’s notice on either side during the period of probation and thereafter while employed in temporary capacity. The Government reserves the right to give one month’s pay in lieu of notice.
- Private practice of any kind whatsoever is prohibited.
- Nature of Duties
- Medical attendance of emergencies, outpatients and inpatients (ab) Medical Examinations
(ac) Providing occupational health service
(ad) General administration of the department under his charge-Plan, Organize and Supervise the work; quality assurance’ Control, discipline, training and welfare of the staff and ensuring proper discharge of duties by then, Stores management; Maintenance of proper documentation, records and statistics; Ensuring proper housekeeping and security; maintenance of facility, equipment and instruments; ensuring proper infection control and bio-medical waste disposal.
(ae) Such other duties as are allotted to them by the Medical Officer-in Charge.
III. Junior Scale posts in the Central Health Service.
- The posts are temporary but likely to continue indefinitely. Candidates will be appointed to Junior Group ‘A’ scale and they will be on probation for the period of 2 years from the date of appointment which may be curtailed or extended at the discretion of the competent authority. They will be confirmed after the satisfactory completion of probation subject to availability of permanent posts.
- The candidates can be posted anywhere in India in any dispensary or hospital under any organisation participating in the Central Health Service viz. C.G.H.S. operating at Delhi, Bangalore, Bombay, Meerut, Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands, P&T department etc. Private practice of any kind whatsoever including lab and consultant practice is prohibited.
- The scale of pay admissible to the Medical Officer of CHS is in the Level-10 (Rs. 56,100 to Rs.1,77,500/-) of the pay matrix and NPA as per orders issued by the Government from time to time, and the promotional avenues will be available as per the provision of CHS Rules, 2014 and the orders and instructions issued by the Government from time to time.
- General Duty Medical Officer in the New Delhi Municipal Council:
- Pay Matrix Level-10 Rs. 56,100-1,77,500/- + restricted Non-practicing allowance (NPA).
- Ordinary rules regarding pensions, gratuity, confirmation etc. as enforced in the Council from time to time will be applicable.
- The candidate will be on probation for a period of two years from the date of appointment which may be extended at the discretion of the competent authority. On satisfactory completion of the probation period will continue in the temporary capacity till confirmed against the permanent vacancy.
- The candidate can be posted anywhere within the jurisdiction of the N.D.M.C. in any of the hospital/dispensaries/M & C family welfare Centres/Primary Health Centres etc.
- Private practice of any kind whatsoever is prohibited.
- The appointment can be terminated on one month’s notice on either side during the period of probation and thereafter, while employed in temporary capacity, NDMC reserves the right to one month’s pay in lieu of notice.
- GDMO shall be entitled for promotion as Senior Medical Officer in the Pay Matrix Level – 11 Rs. 67700-208700/- and from Senior Medical Officer to Chief Medical Officer in the Pay Matrix Level – 12 Rs. 78800-209200/- and from Chief Medical Officer to Chief Medical Officer (Non-functional Selection Grade) in the Pay Matrix Level – 13 Rs. 118500-214100/- and Senior Administrative Grade Pay Matrix Level – 14 Rs. 144200-218200/-.
- General Duty Medical Officer Gr.II in East Delhi Municipal Corporation, North Delhi Municipal Corporation and South Delhi Municipal Corporation:
- Salary at the minimum of first cell of Rs. 56,100/- in the level 10 of the Pay Matrix under 7th CPC (corresponding to pre-revised scale in PB – 3 Rs. 15600-39100+GP Rs. 5400/-)plus NPA and other admissible allowances as per rules.
- The candidates will be on probation for a period of two year from the date of appointment which may be curtailed or extended at the discretion of the Competent Authority. On satisfactory completion of the probation period, he will continue in the temporary post till confirmed against the permanent vacancy.
- The candidate can be posted anywhere within the jurisdiction of the East Delhi Municipal Corporation, North Delhi Municipal Corporation and South Delhi Municipal Corporation in anyone of the Hospital/Dispensaries/M&CW and Family Welfare Centres/Primary Health Centres etc.
- Private practice of any kind whatsoever is prohibited.
- The appointment can be terminated on one month`s notice on either side during the period of probation and thereafter while employed in temporary capacity. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi reserves the right to pay one month`s pay in lieu of notice. Prospects of promotion including pay scale and allowances attached to the higher grades shall be according to the provisions of Recruitment Regulations.