HPBOSE Syllabus Class 10 – HP Board 10th Syllabus

# HPBOSE Syllabus Class 10 – HP Board 10th Syllabus

## HPBOSE Syllabus Class 10 – HP Board 10th Syllabus

HPBOSE Syllabus Class 10 – HP Board 10th Syllabus

### Maths

Time: 3 hours
Maximum marks: 85Unit I : Number Systems

1. Real Numbers (15 Periods)
Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic-statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of results-irrationality of Ö2, Ö3, Ö5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals.

Unit II: Algebra

1. Polynomials (6 Periods)
Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with particular reference to quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.

2. Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables. (15 Periods)
Pair of linear equations in two variables. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions inconsistency.
Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations may be included.

Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ¹ 0). Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.
Problems related to day to day activities to be incorporated.

4. Arithmetic Progression 8 Periods (8 Periods)
Motivation for studying AP. Derivation of standard results of finding the nth term and sum of first n terms.

Unit III : Trigonometry

1. Trigonometric Ratios (15 Periods)
Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° & 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° & 60°. Relationships between the ratios.

2. Trigonometric Identities (16 Periods)
Prro and applications of the identity sin2 A + cos2 A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.

3. Heights and Distances (8 Periods)
Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.

Unit-IV : Coordinate Geometry

1. Lines (In two-dimensions) (15 Periods)
Review the concepts of coordinate geometry done earlier including graphs of linear equations. Awareness of geometrical representation of quadratic polynomials. Distance between two points and section formula (internal). Area of a triangle.

Unit-V : Geometry

1. Triangles (15 Periods)
Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles

1. (Prove) if a line a drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect to other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
5. (Motivate) If one angles of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides.
8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right triangle.

2. Circles (8 Periods)
Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer and closer to the point.
1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal.

3. Constructions (8 Periods)
1. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally)
2. Tangent to a circle from a point outside it.
3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.

Unit-VI: Mensuration

1. Areas of Plane Figures (12 Periods)
Motivate the area of a circle ; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter/ circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° & 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken).

2. Surface Areas And Volumes (12 Periods)

• Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders / cones. Frustum of a cone.
• Problems involving concerting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken)

Unit VII : Statistics And Probability

1. Statistics 15 Periods
Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.

2. Probability
Classical definition of probability. Connection with probability as given in Class IX. Simple problems on single events, not using set notation.

Prescribed Book:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Home Science

Home Science

Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 60

I. One Theory Paper

1. Cookery:
(1) Balanced diet ; food groups; Principles of Meal planning ; catering.
(2) Causes of deterioration in food and methods of food preservation in home.

2. Laundry and Needle Work
(1) Care and storage of fabrics synthetic, cotton, silk and wool.
(2) The laundry room, laundry equipment and cleansing materials.
(3) Washing and finishing of cotton and woolen clothes.

3. Home Management
(1) Principles of interior decoration.
(2) Selection of suitable furniture, fittings and simple articles of decoration; colour combinations, arrange of flowers and pictures.

4. Home Nursing And Child Development
(1) Principles of Child Development, Physical and emotional needs of the growing child.
(2) Formation of Habits : Eating, sleeping, toilet training, exercise and play habits.

II. Practical One Paper
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 25

(1) Preparation of lunch and breakfast : Table setting.
(2) Preparation of Jam Pickle.
(3) Preparation of a household chest of medicines.
(4) Washing and finishing of cotton and woolen clothes.
(5) Preparation of two articles of decoration (one knitted).
(6) Changing the safety valve of the Pressure Cooker.
(7) Preparation of two charts.
(8) Keeping records of Practical work done in the class.

5. Methods And Techniques of Teaching
Each lesson should be well-planned by the teacher. Whatever is taught should be related to appropriate demonstration, example, illustration or practical work. Students should be helped to arrive at their own conclusion. Experimental approach is recommended. The teacher is also advised to make available a variety of booklets and other reading material on different aspect of the subject for study by the students. Where necessary, a local expert may be brought to the classroom to demonstrate and explain a particular process or activity. Recapitulation can be arranged in a variety of ways. Outdoor activities should be preplanned. Internal assessment charts should be maintained with care. The teacher should also ensure a well equipped laboratory in the school.

Prescribed Books: Grih Vijyan by HPBSE Dhamshala.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Social Science

Social Science
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

Unit I : India And The Contemporary World-II

 Themes Objectives Theme 3 is compulsory. Students to choose any one form the first two themes. Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes: 1. Nationalism in Europe : (a) The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini etc. (c) General Characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece. The theme will discuss the forms in which nationalism developed along with the formation of nation states in Europe in the post-1830 period. Discuss the relationship/ difference between European nationalism and anti-colonial nationalism. Point to the way the idea of the nation states became generalized in Europe and elsewhere. 2. Nationalist movement in Indo- China : Factors leading to growth of rationalism in India (a) French colonialism in Indochina. (b) Phases of struggle against the French (c) The ideas of Phan Dinh Phung. Phan Boi Chau, Nguyen Ac Quouc (d) The second world war and the liberation struggle. (e) America and the second Indochina war. Discuss the difference between French colonialism in Indochina and British Colonialism in India. Outline the different stages of the anti-imperialist struggle in Indochina. Familiarize the students with the differences between nationalist movements in Indo-China and India. 3. Nationalism in India. Civil Disobedience Movement (a) First World War, Khilafat and Non- Cooperation. (b) Salt Satyagraha. (c) Movements of peasants, workers, tribals (d) Activities of different political groups. Sub-Unit 1.2 : Economies and livelihoods : Discuss the characteristics of Indian nationalism through a case study of Civil Disobedience movement. Analyze the nature of the diverse social movements of the time. Familiarize students with the writings and ideals of different political groups and individuals. 4. Industrialization 1850s- 1950s : (a) Contrast between the form of industrialization in Britain and India. (b) Relationship between handicrafts and industrial production, formal and informal sectors. (c) Livelihood of workers. Case studies : Britain and India. Discuss two different patterns of industrialization, one in the imperial country and another within a colony. Show the relationship between different sectors of production. 5. Urbanization and urban lives : (a) Patterns of urbanization (b) Migration and the growth of towns. (c) Social change and urban life. (d) Merchants, middle classes, workers and urban poor. Case studies : London and Bombay in the nineteenth and twentieth century. Show the difference between urbanization in two different contexts. A focus on Bombay and London will allow the discussions on urbanization and industrialization to complement each other. 6. Trade and Globalization : (a) Expansion and integration of the world market in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. (b) Trade and economy between the two Wars. (c) Shifts after the 1950s (d) Implications of globalization for livelihood patterns. Case study : The post War International Economic order, 1945 to 1960s. Sub-unit 1.3 : Culture, Identity and Society Show that globalization has a long history and point to the shifts within the process. Analyze the implication of globalization for local economies. Discuss how globalization is experienced differently by different social groups. 7. Print culture and nationalism. (a) The history of print in Europe. (b) The growth of press in nineteenth century India. (c) Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics. Discuss the link between print culture and the circulation of ideas. Familiarize students with pictures, cartoons, extracts from propaganda literature and newspaper debates on important events and issues in the past. 8. History of the Novel : (a) Emergence of the novel as a genre in the west. (b) The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society. (c) Early novels in nineteenth century India. (d) A study of two or three major writers. Sub units 1.4 : Map Work (2 Marks) Show that forms of writing have a specific history, and that they reflect historical changes within society and shape the forces of change. Familiarize students with some of the ideas of writers who have had a powerful impact on society.

Unit-2 : India-Resources and Their Development

 Themes Objectives 1. Resources : Types-natural and human; Need for resource planning. Understand the value of resources and the need for their judicious utilization and conservation. 2. Natural Resources : Land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures. Identify various types of farming and discuss the various farming methods; to describe the spatial distribution of major crops as well as understand the relationship between rainfall regimes and cropping pattern. 3. Agriculture : types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms : their impact-contribution of Agriculture to national economy – employment and output. Explain various government policies for institutional as well as technological reforms since independence; Understand the importance of agriculture in national economy. 4. Water resources : Sources, distribution, utilization, multipurpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting, (One case study to be introduced). Understand the importance of water as a resources as well as develop awareness towards its judicious use and conservation. 5. Mineral Resources : Types of minerals, distribution, use and economic importance of minerals, conservation. Discuss various types of minerals as well as their uneven nature of distribution and explain the need for their judicious utilization. 6. Power Resources : Types of power resources conventional and non-conventional, distribution and utilization and conservation. Discuss various types of conventional and non-conventional resources and their utilization 7. Manufacturing Industries : Types, spatial distribution, contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. (One case study to be introduced) Discuss the importance of industries in the national economy as well as understand the regional disparities which resulted due to concentration of industries in some areas. Discuss the need for a planned industrial development and debate over the role of government towards sustainable development. 8. Transport, Communication and Trade To explain the importance of transport and communication in the ever shrinking world. To understand the role of trade in the economic development of a country and analyze the changing. 9. Map Work ( 3 marks)

Unit- 3 Democratic Politics-II – (40 periods)

 Themes Objectives 1. Working of Democracy: Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy ? What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste ? How has the gender division shaped politics? How do communal divisions affect democracy? Analyse the relationship between social cleavages and political competition with reference to Indian situation. Understand and analyse the challenges posed by communalism to Indian democracy. Understand the enabling and disabling effects of caste and ethnicity in politics. 2. Power sharing mechanisms in democracy : Why and how is power shared in democracies ? How has federal division of power in India helped national unity ? To what extent has decentralisation achieved this objective ? How does democracy accommodate different social groups ? Develop a gender perspective on politics Introduce students to the centrality of power sharing in a democracies. Understand the working of spatial and social power sharing mechanisms. Analyse federal provisions and institutions 3. Competition and contestations in democracy. How do struggles shape democracy in favour of ordinary people ? What role do political parties play in competition and contestation ? Which are the major national and regional parties in India ? Why have social movements come to occupy large role in politics? Understand the new Panchayati Raj institutions in rural and urban areas. Understand the vital role of struggle in the expansion of democracy. Analyse party systems in democracies. Introduction to major political parties in the country 4. Outcomes of democracy Can or should democracy be judged by its outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracies ? Does democracy in India meet these expectations ? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the led to development, security and dignity for the people ? What sustains democracy in India ? Analyse the role of social movements and non party political formations. Introduction to the difficult question of evaluating the functioning of democracies. Develop the skills of evaluating Indian democracy on some key dimensions: Development, security and dignity for the people. 5. Challenges to democracy. Is the idea of democracy shrinking ? What are the major challenges to democracy in India ? How can democracy be reformed and deepened ? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy ? Understand the causes for continuation of democracy in India. Distinguish between sources of strength and weaknesses of Indian democracy. Reflect on the different kinds of measures possible to deepen democracy. Promote an active and participatory citizenship

Unit 4 : Understanding Economics-II

 Themes Objectives 1. The story of Development : The traditional notion of development ; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI- critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Chapter 4 Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development. The approach to this theme : Use case study of three states ( Kerala, Punjab and Bihar) or take a few countries (India, china, Sri Lanka and one developed country) Familiarisation of some macroeconomic concepts. Sensitizing the child about the rationale for overall human development in our country, which include the rise of income, improvements in health and education rather than income. It is necessary to raise question in minds of the children whether the increase in income alone is sufficient for a nation. How and why people should be healthy and provided with education. 2. Money and financial System: Role of money in an economy : Historical Origin; Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit – General Introduction : Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords, self help groups, chit funds and private finance companies. Familiarize the concept of money as an economic concept; Create awareness of the role of financial institutional from the point of view day-to-day life. 3. The role of Service Sector in Indian Economy : What is service sector (through examples): Importance of Service Sector in generating employment and income to the nation (with the help of a few case studies); Growth of Service Sector in India; India as a major service provider to the world; The need for public investment; The role of important infrastructure, education and health. To make aware of a major employment generating sector. Sensitise the learner of how and why governments invest in such an important sector. 4. Globalisation : What is Globalisation (through some simple examples); How India is being globalised and why; Development Strategy prior to 1991, State Control of Industries : Textile goods as an example for elaboration; Economic Reforms 1991; Strategies adopted in Reform measures (easing of capital flows; migration, investment flows); Different perspectives on globalisation and its impact on different sectors; Political Impact of Globalisation. Provide children with some idea about how a particular economic phenomenon is influencing their surroundings and day-to-day life. 5. Consumer Awareness : How consumer is exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in a market; role of government in consumer protection. Making the child aware of his or her rights and duties as a consumer Familiarizing the legal measures available to protect from being exploited in markets.

Suggested Activities

Theme 2 :
Visit to banks and money lenders / pawnbrokers and discuss various activities that you have observed in banks in the classroom.
Participate in the meetings of self help groups, which engaged in micro credit schemes in the locality of learners and observe issues discussed.
Participate in the meetings of self help groups, which engaged in micro credit schemes in the locality of learners and observe issues discussed.

Theme 3 :
Provide many examples of service sector activities. Use numerical examples, charts and photographs

Theme 4:
Collect logos of standards available for various goods and services.
Visit a consumer court nearby and discuss in the class the proceedings ; Collect stories of consumer exploitation and grievances from news papers and consumer courts.

Unit 5 : Disaster Management (25 Periods)

• Tsunami
• Safer Construction Practices.
• Survival Skills.
• Alternate Communication Systems during disasters.
• Sharing Responsibility.

Prescribed Books:

1. India and the contemporary World-II
2. Contemporary India-II
3. Understanding Economic Development
4. Democratic Polities-II
5. Disaster Management

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Commerce

Commerce

Note : Any one of the following three areas can be offered :
II. Elements of Book Keeping and Accountancy or
III. Typewriting-English or Hindi

Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

Objective : The objective of this paper is to provide elementary knowledge of the different aspects of business.

 One Paper Marks /Periods I. Office Routine: Different departments of Business: establishment, handling inward and outward mail, Filing and indexing methods, copying and duplicating methods. 17 marks/54 periods II. Business Correspondence : Essential forms of a good business letter, writing of simple business letters of enquiry, quotations, order, reference, advice and complaints 17 marks/ 54 periods III. Banks: Functions of a Bank, Kinds of account and their operation; bank drafts, traveller’s cheque, Post Office Saving Bank. 17 marks/ 54 periods IV. Negotiable Instruments : Nature, kinds of cheques, endorsement, crossing, dishonouring of a cheque. 17 marks/54 periods V. Bills of Exchange : Kinds, parties, negotiation, endorsing dishonouring, Promissory notes and Hundies. 17 marks/54 periods

Or

(II) Elements of Book-Keeping and Accountancy
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85
Periods-270

 One Paper Marks/Periods I. Final Accounts : Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of a sole trader with simple adjustments. 17 marks/54 periods II. Bank Reconciliation Statement : Utility and Preparation; preparation of Cash Book with discount and Bank columns 17 marks/54 periods III. Bills of Exchange : Nature and use of bills of exchange and promissory notes : Recording transactions pertaining to drawing, discounting, retiring, dishonouring and renewing of bills of exchange. 17 marks/54 periods IV. Errors and their Rectification :Types of errors and entries for their rectification. 17 marks/54 periods V. Depreciation : Objects and methods-Straight line and Diminishing Balance methods. 17 marks/54 periods

Or

(III) Type Writing-(English or Hindi)

Due to speedy industrialisation and rapid means of communication, the use of labour saving devices is on the increase. Typewriting is one of the most commonly used labour saving devices even in remote towns. Its relevance is more pronounced in developing countries where other sophisticated labour saving devices are not available. HPBSE has decided to include the subject “Typewriting-English or Hindi” as an Elective at the Secondary level. This step has made the Scheme of Studies job oriented and need based.

One Theory Paper
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 25
Periods-68

1. Functions of important parts of Typewriter.
3. Knowledge of cutting stencils and use of correcting fluid.
4. Simple proof correction symbols.
5. Standard abbreviations.
6. Speed development exercises.

Practical Paper
Time: 1 hour
Maximum Marks: 60
Periods: 202
(A) Running Matter-A Speed and Accuracy Test
Time : 10 minutes
Marks: 24

(A Passage of 300 Words @ 30 w.p.m. in English and 250 words @ w.p.m in Hindi. The same passage to be repeated, if finished before time)

(B) Tabulation Test
Time: 40 minutes
Marks : 36

(A Tabular statement having not more than 3-4 rows and columns horizontally and vertically. The same is applicable for Hindi Typewriting also)

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Agriculture

Agriculture

Theory paper
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 50

Unit-I : Geology : Kinds of Rocks, Soil formation classification of soil, soil fertility, its meaning remedial measures for the infertile soil, soil erosion and methods of its control.

Unit-II : Agronomy : Cultural methods prevalent in Himachal Pradesh, classification of field crops detailed study of food and fibre crops such as wheat, maize, paddy, sugarcane,couliflower, Bringle, Tomato.

Crop Rotations and their importance :— Weeds and their control, Manures and fertilizers, Classification of fertilizers, importance of nitrogen, phosphorus. Potash Application ofFertilizers, Farmyard manure and compost preparation, Composition and utilization, Green manuring, Tillage and Tillage implements and tools, Indigenous, and mould board ploughs their importance and usefulness.

Irrigation :— Need of water for plants life, sources and means of irrigation in HP Methods of irrigation.

Unit-III : Horticulture :— Importance of horticulture, and its zones in Himachal Pradesh Layout of an orchards, orchards, grafting, budding and pruning of plants.
(i) Detailed study of the Horticulture crops in respect of soil climate, spacing, manuring, posts and diseases and their control.
(ii) Fruit Crops (Cultivation) : Apple, grapes, plums, peach, pear, almond, apricot, mango, citrus, litchi etc.
(iii) Fruit Preservation : Importance of fruit preservation and its different methods.
(iv) Ornamental plants : Propagation and cultivation of ornamental plants, viz.
1. Bulbus plant
2. Annual flowers
3. Shrubs
4. Climber and creepers
5. Ornamental trees
6. Indoor plants, water plants etc.

(v) Study of different horticulture tools and implements and study of different spraying and dusting machine.

Practical Work
Time : 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 35

1. Measurement of the allotted land for the purpose of sowing vegetables. Each student to be provided with a plot in which he will grow one Kharif and Rabi season vegetable. He will keep the record in his practical note book.
2. Identification of important weeds and annual flower.
3. Preparation of Albums and charts.
4. Preparation of Jams, Jellies, Squashes, Ketchups and Pickles.
5. Practice in yoking and Ploughing.
6. Assembling of implements and fault finding.
7. Handling, securing and drenching of animals.
8. Milking of cows.
9. Practice in the use of plant protection equipment.
10. Excursion / study tours to the places of agricultural importance.
11. Preparation of seed beds.
12. Identification of seeds manure and fertilizers and soils.

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 English Literature

English Literature
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

 Section Marks and Periods Section-A : Reading Two unseen passages of total 500 words with a variety of questions including 4 marks for vocabulary. Only prose passages will be used. One will be factual and the other will be literary. 1. Passage 1-200 words (7 marks)- Four or five comprehension questions 2. Passage 2 – 300 words (10 marks)- Four or five comprehension questions and two questions on vocabulary Marks for vocabulary not exceed 4 marks. 17 marks/30 periods Section-B : Writing 3. Letter Writing-One letter based on provided verbal stimulus and context. (6 marks) Types of letter: Informal: Personal such as to family and friends Formal: Letter of complaints, enquiry, requests, applications. 4. Writing a short paragraph on a given outline/ topic in about 60 words. (4 marks) 5. Composition : A short writing task based on a verbal and / or visual stimulus. (diagram, picture, graph, map, chart, table, flow chart etc.) (6 marks) 16 marks/ 40 periods Section-C : Grammar Question No. 6-11 A variety of short questions involving the use of particular structures within a context. Text types used include cloze, gap-filling, sentences completion, sentence-reordering, dialogue-completion and sentence transformation (including combining sentences). The Grammar syllabus will include the following areas for teaching : 1. Use of non- finite. 2. Sentence connectors: as since, while, then, just because, just, unit. 3. Clauses with what, where and how. 4. Past Tense. 5. Modals: can, could, may, must, might. 15 marks/ 45 periods Section-D : Text Books Question12 & 13 Two extracts from different prose lessons included in Textbook (Approximately 100 words each) (5×2=10 marks) These extracts chosen from different lessons will be literary and discursive in nature. Each extract will be of 5 marks. One mark in each extract will be for vocabulary. 4 marks in each passage will be used for testing local and global comprehension besides a question on interpretation. 14. One out o two questions extrapolative in nature based on any one of the prose lessons from Textbook to be answered in about 80 words (05 marks) 15. One out of two questions on Drama Text (local and global comprehension question) (30-40 words) (3 marks) Poetry (8 marks) 16. One extract from a poem from the prescribed reader followed by two or three questions to test the local and global comprehension of the set text. The extract will carry three marks. (3 marks) 17. Two out of three short answer type questions on interpretation of themes and ideas contained in the poems to be answered in 30-40 words each. (5 marks) Supplementary Reader 18. One out of two questions from supplementary Reader to interpret, evaluate and analyze character, plot or situations occurring in the lessons to be answered in about 100 words. (5 marks) 19. One out of two short answer type questions of interpretative and evaluative nature based on lessons to be answered in 30-40 words. (4 marks) 20. One out of two short answer type questions based on factual aspects of the lessons to be answered in 20-30 words. (2 marks) 37 marks/ 95 periods

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Science & Technology

Science and Technology
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 60

Theory
Theme : Materials (55 Periods)

Unit 1 : Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Acids, bases and salts : General properties, examples and uses.
Chemical reactions: Types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction in terms of gain and loss of oxygen and hydrogen.

Metals and non metals: Brief discussion of basic metallurgical processes. Properties of common metals. Elementary idea about bonding.

Carbon Compounds: Carbon compounds, elementary idea about bonding. Saturated hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids (no preparation, only properties).

Some important chemical compounds: Soap-cleansing action of soap.

Periodic classification of elements : Gradations in properties : Mendeleev periodic table.

Theme : The world of the living (50 Periods)

Unit-2 : Our environment
Our environment : Environmental problems, their solutions. Biodegradable, non biodegradable, ozone depletion.

Life Processes : ”living” things; Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

Control and Co-ordination in plants and animals : Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, nervous system; chemical coordination: animal hormones.

Reproduction : Reproduction in plants and animals. Need for and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV /AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.

Heredity and evolution : Heredity; Origin of life: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.

Theme : How things work. 35 Periods

Unit 3 : Effects of Current
Potential, Potential difference, Ohm’s law; Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors; Power dissipation due to current; Inter relation between P, V. I and R.

Magnets : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying wire, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electro magnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Direct current. Alternating current; frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

Theme : Natural Phenomena

Unit 4 : Convergence and divergence of light. Images formed by a concave mirror; related concepts; centre of curvature; principal axis. Optic centre, focus, focal length.
Refraction: laws of refraction.

Image formed by a convex lens; functioning of a lens in human eye; problems of vision and remedies. Applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.

Appreciations of concept of refraction; velocity of light : refractive index. twinkling of stars; dispersion of light. Scattering of light.

Theme : Natural Resources (20 Periods)

Unit 5 : Conservation of natural resources : Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. People’s participation. Chipko movement. Legal perspectives in conservation and international scenario.

The Regional environment : Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.

Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, leading to different sources for human use : fossil fuels, solar energy, bio-gas, wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources.

Practical

List of Experiments
Maximum Marks: 25

1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator.
(i) Dilute Hydrochloric acid
(ii) Dilute NaoH solution
(iii) Dilute Ethanoic acid solution
(iv) Lemon juice
(v) Water
(vi) Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

2. To study the properties of acids and bases HCI & NaOH by their reaction with
(i) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
(ii) Zinc metal
(iii) Solid Sodium Carbonate

3. To determine the focal length of
(a) Concave mirror
(b) Convex lens
by obtaining the image of a distant object.

4. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.

5. To study the dependence of current (1) on the potential difference (V) across a resistor and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I.

6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series.

7. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel.

8. To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.

9. To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.

10. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.

11. To determine the percentage of water absorbed by raisins.

12. To prepare So2 gas, observe its following properties and draw inferences in respect of
(i) odor
(ii) solubility in water
(iii) effect on litmus paper
(iv) action on acidified potassium dicromate solution.

13. (a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and AI metals on the following salt solutions.
(i) ZnSO4 (aq.)
(ii) FeSO4 (aq.)
(iii) CuSo4 (aq.)
(iv) Al2 (SO4)3 (aq.)

(b) Arrange Zn,Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.

14. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid).
(i) odor
(ii) solubility in water
(iii) effect on litmus
(iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate.

Scheme of Evaluation : External Examination (to be conducted by the Board) (25 Marks)

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Music (Hindustani Vocal)

Music

(I) Hindustani Music (Vocal)

Theory – (25 marks)
1. Basic knowledge of the structure and tuning of Taanpura.
2. Knowledge of the notation systems laid down by Pt. Vishnu Digamber and Pt. V.N. Bhatkhande.
4. Brief description of Natya shastra, Sangeet Ratnakar.

Practical – (60 marks)
1. Community Singing:
(a) Two songs in different regional languages.
(b) One Tagore song

2. Aaroha, Avaroha, Pakad and Drut Khyal in the following Ragas : Kafi, Khamaj, Sarang and Desh with simple elaborations and few tanas.

Prescribed Books:

Suggested Reference Books:
1. Kramik Pustak Malika by Pandit V. N. Bhatkhande
2. Rag Vigyan by Pandit V.N. Patwardhan.

(II) Hindustani Music (Melodic Instruments)

Theory -(25 marks)
1. Basic knowledge of the structure and tuning of any one of the following instruments.
(i) Sitar
(ii) Sarod
(iii) Violin
(iv) Dilruba or Esraj
(v) Flute
(vi) Mandolin
(vii) Guitar

2. Knowledge of the notation systems laid down by Pt. Vishnu Digamber Paluskar and Pt. V.N. Bhatkhande.

4. Brief description of Natya Shastra, Sangeet Ratnakar

Practical- (60 marks)

1. Eight Tala-babbha Alankaras set to different Talas.
2. Aaroha, Avaroha, Pakad and Drut gat in the following Ragas : Kafi, Khamaj, Sarang and Desh with simple elaborations and few Toras.

Suggested Reference Books :

1. Sitar Marg (1 Part) by Shri S. Bandyopadhyaya, Vani Mandir, Subzi Mandi, Delhi-7
2. Vitat Vadya Shiksha’, by Shri S. Bandyopadhyaya, Vani Mandir, Subzi Mandi, Delhi-7
3. Sitar and its Technique by Prof. Debu Chaudhuri, Avon Publishers, Shahdara, Delhi.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Urdu Core

Urdu
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

I. Text Book (37 Marks)
(i) Prose-16 Lessons consisting of:- (23 marks)
(a) Short Stories.
(b) Lessons of General Interest reflecting social, cultural national and moral values. (14 marks)

(ii) Poetry: 10 Poems of Poets for children literature keeping in view the understanding level of children

II. Grammar and Composition: (48 marks)
(a) (i) Knowledge of Nouns, Pronouns, adjectives and verbs. (3 marks)
(ii) Singular and Plural Numbers (3 marks)
(iii) Fill in the Blanks (4 marks)
(iv) Use of words and phrases in sentences. (4 marks)
(v) Use opposite words. (3 marks)
(vi) Masculine Feminine genders (3 marks)

(b) Composition
(i) Essays (very simple topics) (12 marks)
(ii) Simple letters (8 marks)
(iii) Simple applications (8 marks)

Note :— All the questions in grammar should be set on the basis of vocabulary in the Text book

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Tamil

Tamil
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

Course Content:
A. Nouns and Pronouns
B. Number, Gender and Case-markers.
C. Antonyms
D. Verb and Tenses.
Such as : Read, Come, Go, Write, Teach, to give, to be.

Translation:
A. Translation from Tamil to Hindi.
B. Translation from Hindi to Tamil

Note :— Either 10 simple sentences or a passage of about five lines from the Text-Book will be given for translation.

Comprehension:
A passage of about five lines from the prescribe Text-Book Tamil-II will be given out of the lessons mentioned above and the student wills be asked to answer the questions and giving meanings of four difficult words asked for.

Text:
The text book will be a collection of small lessons both prose and poetry on various topics in simple style. The students may be asked to fill in the blanks, to write four lines of any poem from the text-book to write in good hand writing a passage given from the text book.

Essay Writing:
Letter to father for money.
Application to the Headmaster / Principal for sick leave or leave for an urgent work.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Telugu

Telugu
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

1. Vocabulary:
(a) Numerals : 51 to 1000 and up to one crore
(b) Pronouns and their oblique forms:
Such as:

 Neenu naa naaku Miiru mii miiku Idi diini diiniki

2. Tenses:
(a) Present Tense : Just as :

2. Neenu paalu taagutunnanu.
(b) Past Tense:
Example :
1. Neenu paalu taagaanu.
2. Miiru paalu taagaaru.
(c) Future Tense:
Example :
1. Neenu Paalu taagutaanu.
2. Miiru paalu taagutaaru

(d) Use of can and cannot :
Use of Galunu and leenu.
(e) Use of should and should not :
Use of Kaawali and Wodddu.
(f) Use of Telsu and Teliidu:

(g) Conditional Sentences :
Example : Aame Wastee Neenu-Wastaanu.

1. Grammar
1. Change of Genders : Such as Kodduku, Kutturu, Manvadu, Manvarralu, etc.
2. Change the Numbers : Such as Balla, Kurchii, Piillii, Semham, etc.
3. Opposite Words : Just as Manchi, chinna, I-kkada; Ippudu, etc.
4. Post Position: I jaggara, Kinda, Lopala, Bayita, Meedu, etc.
5. Use of Ku / Ki, Nu / Ni

2. Text Book :
1. Telugu Velugu Part-II : Lesson No’s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, are to be taught only. The other lessons are deleted. The above book is written by Venpat Raman Rao and published by C.I.I.L. Mysore.

3. Composition:
(a) Essays : Maa Badi, Maa Uuru, Himachal Pradesh and Maa Sanchitudu etc.
(b) Stories : It will be asked from the Text Book only.
(c) Letters :
1. Letter to father for money.
2. Letter to bookseller for books.
3. Application for leave.

4. One passage for comprehension out of the prescribed Text Book

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Art

Art

Paper-A
Art (Drawing, Painting & Applied Arts)
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 50

Scale and Geometrical Drawing
1. Scale Drawing: Almirahs, Stool, Dressing Tables, Drawing Desks, Towel Stand, News Paper Stands, Pot Stands.
2. Geometrical Drawing; Polygons, Circles, Solid Geometry (Solid Geometry: There should be solid of squares, Prisms and Pyramids)

Paper-B
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 35

1. Composition or Applied Art (Poster Design or Illustrations) (18 marks)
2. Still Life : Making Drawing of the objects placed at a distance to finish the drawing with light, shade and shadows (Not more than three objects). (17 marks)
(i). One angular shape
(ii).
Round shape
(iii)
Fruits and vegetable.

Medium: Dark Pencils, water colours, postal colours, tempera.

Compositions: Study of natural and made forms human figures, animals etc. Out door sketching on daily life subjects like postman, milkman, watchman, folk stories, scenes of accidents, madari, snake charmers etc.

Applied Art : Poster Design : Based on the topics such as school activities Drama Annual function fete and fair and current issues etc.

Illustrations: Based on daily life incidents, stories poems accidents social activities etc.

Medium: Poster colour, water colours, inks and sketch pens etc.

Note : There will be two questions to do for the students in paper-B, One question on still life is compulsory.
Prescribed Book:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Introductory Information Technology

Introductory Information Technology

One Theory Paper
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 35

Unit 1: IT Basics – 8 Periods (9 marks)
Internet : World Wide Web, Web Servers, Web sites, Web Pages, Web Browsers, HTML, Beb address, Email address. URL. HTTP.
Services available on Internet : Information retrieval, Electronic Mails, Locating sites using search engines and finding people on the net, Chat, Video Conferencing, FTP, Downloading and Uploading files from or to remote site, Newsgroup.

Unit 2 : IT Tools
MS Office – 17 Periods (26 marks)

MS Access – 05 Periods (8 marks)

Basic Concepts and need for a database, Creating a database, Setting the Primary Key, Entering data into a database, Inserting and deleting fields, Inserting and deleting Records, Data Validation : Field Size, default Value Validation Rule, Validation Text, Required, Allow Zero Length.

Hyper Text Markup language: Basic Concept of Web Browsers with emphasis on popular browsers Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.

HTML Fundamentals – 12 Periods (18 marks)
Introduction to Web Page Designing using HTML, Creating saving an HTML document, Elements in HTML Container and Empty elements, Designing web pages using the following elements: HTML, HEAD, TITLE, BODY (Attributes : BACK GROUHD, BGCOLOUR, TEXT, LINK, ALINK VLINK, LEFTMARGIN, TOPMARGIN), FONT (Attributes : COLOUR, SIZE, FACE), BASEFONT (ATTRIBUTES : COLOUR, SIZE, FACE), CENTER, BR (Break, HR (Horizontal Rule Attributes. SIZE, WIDTH, ALIGH, NOSHADE, COLOUR), COMMENTS,! For comments H1.H6 (Heading), P (Paragraph) B (Bold, I (Italics, U(Underline), UL & OL (Unordered List & ordered List Attributes : Type, Start, LI (List Item), Insertion of images using the element IMG Attributes : SRC, WIDTH, HEIGHT, ALT, ALIGN).

Internal and External Linking between Web Pages : Significance of linking, A – Anchor element (Attributes : NAME HREF, TITLE, ALT)

Unit 3: IT Application
Students are suggested to work on the following areas using Access and HTML on topics implementing the tool covered in the course.
Domains:
Database

• Personal Data Management System

• Employee Payroll

• Stock Inventory

Website Designing

• Travel and Tourism

• Rural India

• Environment and Pollution

Note : (1) Teachers are requested to demonstrate some popular software for word processing. Presentation, Spreadsheet, Database Management, system which support Hindi and/or some other Indian language (s)
(Leap Office is an example of Office suite with Indian Language Support)
(2) Students are suggested to prepare some document/ presentations of their IT Application report file in Indian Language (s).

One Practical Paper

Time: 4 hours
Maximum Marks: 50
Periods: 80

(A) Hands on Experience (2 Exercises) (26 marks)
I. MS Access 8 Marks
II. HTML 18 Marks

1. MS Access:
A problem in MS Access related to some of the tools given below to be tested during the examination :

• Creating and entering data into a database.

• Setting the primary key

• Data Validation

2. HTML
A Problem on Web Page designing (Minimum 2 pages) to be given which will cover some of the following HTML elements:

• <HTML> < HEAD>, <TITLE>, <BODY>

• Font Styles : <B>, <i>, <U>
• <Font> – Face, Size
• < CENTER >

• <P>- ALIGN

• <A>

• <IMG SRC>

The students are supposed to know the tools and style for designing domain specific webpages from real life applications and the topic mentioned in the syllabus.
Breakup of marks (HTML)

• Visual Effect : 6

• Coding : 8

Printouts of the documents (s) should be attached with the answer sheet

(B) IT Application Report File (16 marks)

Students are supposed to make a IT Applications Report File Containing Real life assignment / presentations using MS Access and HTML on topic from the domain :

Must have print outs of the following :

• Documents of MS Access (At least 5)

• HTML Source code along with browser view (at least 10)

(C) Viva Voce (8 marks)

The questions can be asked from any portion of the syllabus covered during Class X.

Note : Teachers are suggested to give first-hand demonstration covering the aspects such as : Connecting to internet, Using popular Search Engines, Web Browsing, Opening E-mail, accounts, Sending and Receiving E-mails, Downloading files and pictures.
Infrastructure:
Following minimum infrastructure requirement is suggested keeping in view of the existing infrastructure.

Software:

• Win 96+
• MS- OFFICE 95 +

• Leap Office 2000

• Netscape Navigator

• Internet Explorer

Minimum Hardware Requirement :

• 486 Multimedia machine
• 16 MB RAM
• 4.4 GB HDD

Internet Connection:

TCP/IP

Student Machine ratio : 2 : 1

Magazine / Journal / Video Film:

• PC quest
• Chip

• PC World

• Computer @ home.

• Computer Today.

• Microsoft training Software

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Drama

Drama

Theory One Paper
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 50

1. Literature :
(i) Study of four plays out of which at least :
(a) One play should be based on history, culture, social life, economic life and development of Himachal Pradesh.
(b) One play should be based on modern Indian drama on patriotic history.
(c) One play should be based on Ancient Indian drama connected with our cultural heritage.
(d) One play connected with social problems of Indian life i.e. family welfare, population education, dowry, untouchability, prohibition and small savings.
(e) One plays intimately bound up with the formation of character and the inculcation of spiritual and moral values of service, truth, honesty, discipline, consideration for others, social responsibility and respect for all religions etc.

(ii) (a) One chapter on costume designing (about four pages).
(b) One chapter on sound lighting equipment and lighting designing (about six pages).
(c) Stage construction (about four pages)
(d) Different types of theaters as arena, proscenium theater, open air theater, Indian classical theater.

(iii) Life history of at least four eminent persons of theater.

(iv) Methodology of Teaching

Practical Work
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 35

1. Stage Craft : Stage setting and lighting; stage design and shape; basis of stage movement and stage management working with props and costumes; acting in different spaces like open air proscenium, arena etc.
2. Improvisations : Further exercise in mime movement, speech making, characterisation etc.
3. Costume designing and make-up.
4. Acting and Stage performance.
(a) Suitable children’s plays.
(b) Short Scenes from classic drama.
(c) Adaptations, Unscripted plays and scripted plays.
(d) Acting of two Folk dramas – Formal performance before an audience.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Social Reconstruction

Social Reconstruction
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 85

1. Surveys & Planning:
(i) Meaning of Surveys
(ii) Need and utility of surveys
(iii) Planning of surveys
(iv) Steps of planning

2. Social Reforms
(i) Dowry system
(ii) Beggary
(iii) Child Marriage
(iv) Social celebrations

3. Educational and cultural institutions
(iii) School
(v) Handicrafts centre.
(vi) Youth Association
(vii) Nehru Yuvak Kendras.
(viii) Mahila Mandals.

4. Hygiene and Sanitation
(i) Importance of health education
(ii) Centres for and programmes for health education.

• Centre for washing and bathing and their care

• Gardens and parks and their care.

• Play centres their organisation and management.

• Nature-cure centres, public dispensaries and hospitals.

5. Co-operative Societies
Constitution and functions of different types of co-operative institutions.
(i) Credit co-operative society.
(ii) Buyers and sellers co-operative societies.
(iii) Co-operative banks.

Study of the fundamental principles of co-operation.

Project Work

(i) Running of school co-operative stores, book banks, San-chayika.
(ii) Conducting Village Surveys with regard to illiterates, beggars, attitude towards, dowry of eligible boys, girls and parents, and preparing reports there of.
(iii) Organisation of Vana Mahotsava. Sanitation and Cleanliness Days- Teachers Day, Gandhi Enrollment drive. book and Science Exhibition etc.
(iv) Visiting slums and habitation of weaker sections of society in order to acquaint the students with actual
living conditions and problems being faced by them.

Note :— The project work is to be planned. organised and executed by the students themselves. The teacher will provide necessary guidance whenever needed.
(v) Methods And Teaching Techniques.

There is a lot of scope for experimentation in teaching the subject. The teacher will have to give some thought as to the approach he should adopt in order to achieve best results. Some of the important considerations which the teacher should bear in mind while organising instructions in the subject are given below :
1. Teaching should be related to the formulation and explanation of basic principles.
2. It should be related to everyday experience.
3. It should stress open mindedness and scientific temper.
4. Emphasis should be laid on functional aspects.
5. It should have relevance to society.
6. Stress should be on experimental approach and self-learning rather than on teaching.
7. Presentation of the basic ideas in accordance with the level of the comprehension of student should be another important consideration.
8. Class-room teaching and project work should be organised in such a manner that it contributes adequately to the development of desirable social and moral values amongst students and it creates among them a hatred for anti-social and anti-moral etc.

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Elements of Engineering

Elements of Engineering

Theory Paper
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 50

Section-1 (Mechanical Engineering) – 17 marks
Study of simple machine like levers, wheel and axle, pulleys,Jacks, winch crab. Transmission of motion and power by belts, gears and chains.
Drawing Instruments and their correcture). Types of Projection (1st angle and 3rd angle) concept of orthographic and isometric views.

Section-II (Electrical Engineering) – 17 marks
Factors affecting the resistance. Difference between conductors and insulators. Concept of capacitance, capacitors in series and parallel (No Problems). Concept of Electromagnets. Elementary idea of various domestic electrical appliances like Electric kettle. room heater, electric oven, table lamp, electric bell, electric iron and immersion on rod.

Section-III (Civil Engineering) – 16 marks
Different types of cement and their uses. Concept of qualities of sand and bajri, bricks and stones, Concept of mixes of plain and reinforced cement concrete with their applications. Mortor :— Concept of mortar’s of different types. Timber seasoning, preservation. Concept of paints and varnishes.

Practical Paper
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 35

Mechanical Engineering :
1. To find out Mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of simple wheel and axle.

Electrical Engineering :
1. Measurement of current and voltage by means of ameter and voltmeter using battery as a source of emf.
2. Repair of Electric iron and heater.

Civil Engineering :
1. Construction of brick wall of 20cm thickness using English and famish bond.
2. To find out the percentage of water absorbed by the bricks.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Socially Useful Productive Work

Socially Useful Productive Work

Objectives

The major objectives of work education at the Secondary stages are :

1. To help the pupils to develop essential knowledge and understanding in terms of :
(a) Identifying needs of the self , family and community in respect of food, health and hygiene, clothing, shelter, recreation and social service.
(b) Acquainting themselves with productive activities in the community
(c) Understanding facts and scientific principles involved in various forms of work.
(d) Knowing the sources of raw materials and understand the use of tools and equipment in the production of goods and services understanding the utility of productive work and services to the community.
(e) Understanding the needs of a technology advancing society in terms of productive processes and skills.
(f) Understanding the process of planning and organizing productive work.
(g) Conceptualizing their role in productive situations.
(h) Developing abilities for self-evaluation of performance and for entrepreneurship.

2. To help the pupils to develop skills :
(a) For the selection, procurement, arrangement and use of tools and materials for different forms of productive work.
(b) To observe , manipulate and participate in work practice.
(c) For the application of problem –solving methods in productive work and social service situations.
(d) For greater productive efficiency.
(e) To enhance their working competence sufficiently so as to enable them to earn while they learn.
(f) To use their creative faculties for devising innovative methods and materials.

3. To help the pupils to develop proper attitude and values in terms of:
(a) Respect for manual work and regard for manual workers.
(b) Socially desirable values such as self-reliance , helpfulness, cooperativeness, teamwork, perseverance, tolerance, etc.
(c) Proper work ethics such as regularity , punctuality, honesty, dedication, discipline, etc.
(d) Self-esteem through achievement in productive work and services.
(e) A deeper concern for environment and a sense of belonging responsibility and commitment for the society. (f) Strive for excellence.

Course Content
The content of work education comprises two parts i.e. ‘Essential Activities’ for the satisfaction of day-to-day needs of the pupils, their families and communities and an Elective Programme of productive work and services, which would result in some remuneration in cash or kind. The component of productive work practice through ‘ Elective Activities’ is most important at this stage and is , therefore, to be assigned a weightage of 70 percent of the school time-table. However , the actual selection of activities/ projects/ prevocational courses by school would depend upon the availability of natural, physical and human resources in the locality, the socio-economic background of the community and the needs and interests of the pupils.

Essential Activities:
List of activities for the secondary School Stage is given below :
(a) Use of bus, railway, air time-table etc.
(b) Milking of dairy animals and managing allied activities.
(c) Help in preparation and distribution of mid-day meal/snacks in composite schools.
(d) Preparation of toys and other play materials for self and primary classes.
(e) Helping school authorities in organizing exhibitions, picnics , tours and excursion, school functions, etc. and then presenting report on that.

4. First aid activities like counting of pulse, taking of temperature and bandaging of wounds after cleaning them.
(a) Helping traffic police on the regulation of traffic.
(b) Plantation of shady/fuel/ ornamental /avenue trees.
(c) Preparation of family budget and maintenance of daily household accounts.
(d) Acquaintance with common fertilizers and pesticides and their applications with appropriate equipment.
(e) To be able to make efforts to know and procure transport facilities from one point to another in cooperation with Panchayat.
(f) Acquaintance with common pests and plant diseases and use of simple chemical and plant protection equipment .
(g) Handling farm animals for feeding, washing and general examination.
(h) Studying the nutrition and health status of people in a village/city /slum/tribal area.
(i) Helping in community health programmes for enhancing the nutrition, health and environment status of the community through door-to-door contact programmes.
(j) Participation in adult literacy programme.
(k) Helping in child-care in creche.
(l) Volunteer work in hospitals and fairs , during natural disasters and accident etc.

Elective Activities
Work practice at this stage is to take the form of projects with sequential activities in respect of vocations in the production or service sectors. Intensive projects/ prevocational courses in diverse need and occupational areas, to be pursued over a span of time raging from a months to the entire two-years duration of the Secondary stage, are clearly the answer for this requirement.
Such projects/prevocational courses are intended to lead to intensive skill formation and proficiency in work which would be conductive to increase productivity and capacity on the part of pupils to engage in work which enables them to earn while they learn . This emphasis on intensive skill formation is meant to provide a prevocational base to the work education programme at this stage and also to serve as ground preparation for the world for those pupils who terminate their studies after Class X. For those who continue their education at the higher Secondary Stage, these prevocational course will serve as preparation for vocational courses at the +2 stage . A tentative list of such projects/prevocational courses is given below.

(a) Raising of flowers, vegetables, plant and their seedlings in nurseries .
(b) Repair and maintenance of equipment for plant protection .
(c) Prefabrication of irrigation channels.
(d) Development plants by vegetative propagation-budding, grafting, cutting layering etc.
(e) Raising poultry birds (1) for eggs (2) for table purposes.
(f) Making bakery and confectionery products.
(g) Food preservation-making of jam, jelly , tomato ketchup, pickles.

5. Projects relating to non–conventional sources of energy –sun, wind, tides, bio-gas, etc.
(i) Bee –keeping , bottling and marketing of honey.
(ii) Silk worm rearing for sale or yarn-making .
(iii) Mushroom cultivation for consumption preservation or sale.
(iv) Cookery skills.
(v) Fish rearing in small ponds.
(vi) Post –harvesting technology and safe storage of food grains.
(vii) Use of bacterial fertilizers.
(viii) Preparation of milk products.
(ix) Plant protection against pest and diseases.
(x) Soil testing and reclamation measures.
(xi) Preparation of stationary items such as files, file boards, registers, writing pads, stamping ink, etc.
(xii) Tieing and dyeing and screen printing as commercial ventures.
(xiii) Garment making.
(xiv) Repair and maintenance of domestic electrical gadgets .
(xv) Preparing electric extension boards for use in home/school or for sale.
(xvi) Photography –commercial
(xvii) Plumbing
(xviii) Preparing paper out waste paper .
(xix) Preparation of decoration pieces of a more sophisticated nature out of plaster of paris.
(xx) Mat and carpet weaving.
(xxi) Doll making.
(xxii) Hand embroidery.
(xxiii) Typewriting with adequate proficiency .
(xxiv) Stenography.
(xxv) Running a cooperative store.
(xxvi) Running a students Bank.
(xxvii) Running a book bank .
(xxviii) Caning, carpentry and handling the Job of a mason.
(xxix) Cycle , scooter repairing.
(xxx) Computer operation & maintenance (surfing, accessing internet, e-mail)
(xxxi) Photocopying .
(xxxii) Screen – printing.
(xxxiii) PCO (fax).
(xxxiv) Maintenance of farm equipments and machines.
(xxxv) NCC, NSS , Scouting and Guiding

Syllabus Outlines of Some Activities that are mentioned below:

I. Essential Activities
Activity 1 : Studying the nutrition and health status of people in a village /city slum/tribal area. The nutrition and health status of the people reflect and present status and future prospects of a country. Enhancement of the nutrition and health status of the people should, therefore, be the first priority of the national planning for development. Study of the factors responsible for the present status of nutrition and health will lead to acquisition of facts on the basis of the which proper planning for the enhancement of their status can be made.

II. Specific Activities
1. Adoption of a village / city slum/tribal area.
2. Preliminary identification of nutritional and health problems of the community.
3. Preparation of questionnaire/interview schedule to elicit background and information from family such as:
(a) General information : Head of the family, type of family
(b) Composition of the family
(c) Meal pattern of the family
(d) Monthly expenditure pattern of food,clothing, housing, education, medicine, fuel, transport, saving, remittance of debt, recreation, other items.
(e) Details of monthly food expenditure.
(f) Food prepared at home.
(g) Food given under special condition.
(h) Methods of cooking.
(i) Food items which are considered “good” and “not -good”.
(j) Commonly occurring health problem.
(k) Deficiency disease of children.
(l) Other common ailments of children.
(m) Commonly occurring ailments in family
(n) Measures taken to get rid of the ailments .
(o) Environmental sanitation problem.
(p) Procedure of disposal of wastes (solid or liquid)
(q) Source of water supply and mode of water storage at home.
(r) Hygienic habits followed.
(s) Health services available.

4. Conduct of Survey

5. Analysis of data preparation of reports on main findings in respect of :
(a) Socio-economic conditions.
(b) Environmental sanitation problems.
(d) Malnutrition problems of children mothers and the community.
(e) Undesirable, nutrition, health and sanitation practices in the community.
(f) Practicable intervention measures to enhance the nutrition and health status:
Helping in community health programmes and enhancing the nutrition, health and environmental status of the community through door-to-door contact programmes.

Activity 2 : Participating in the community health programme through door-to-door contact programmes.
Malnutrition and infection are the major cause of the precarious status of health in the developing world. Malnutrition is not only due to poverty or non availability of food resulting from social and distributive injustice, but also due to ignorance of nutritional facts and undesirable practices.
Malnutrition problems can be resolved to a great extent if judicious selection of food is made possible with in economic means and the available foods are better utilized infectious diseases are causes mainly by the lingering existence of two fundamental problems of environmental sanitation, mainly unsafe water supply and unhygienic disposal of waste, specially human excreta. The application of modern scientific knowledge t environmental sanitation can lead to 80 percent of the diseases being effectively controlled.
Thus, by developing desirable nutrition, health and environmental sanitation practices in the communities, health problems can be considerably resolved. This can be achieved through environment based education for all age groups of population. A door to door contact programme is the most effective way of environment based education, without any nutrition, health and sanitation intervention, the status of nutrition, health and sanitation in the community can be enhance through functional education by door to door contact.

Specific Activities

1. Organizing a conference, inviting the sarpanch of the village, community health worker, personnel from the Primary Health Centre, Public Health Engineer and Block Development Office and discussing about the community health programmes being implemented if the adopted community and exploring the possibility of their participation and cooperation in the contact programme.
2. Correlating the nutrition, health and sanitation problems in the adopted community identified from previous survey (Activity 1) with the community health programmes being implemented and preparing a check-list of specific practices desirably in the community such as :
(a) Gives supplementary foods of the child from the age of four months.
(b) Gives milk to the child in Katori and not in a bottle.
(c) Feeds the child several times a day.
(d) Feed the child even when sick.
(e) Immunized the child.
(f) Washes vegetables before cutting.
(g) Makes use of surplus cooking water.
(h) Use green leafy vegetable regularly
(i) Uses raw vegetables /fruits/sprouted grains regularly.
(j) Keeps the home surroundings clean.
(k) Uses waste water for growing plants.
(l) Throws garbage in a pit.
(m) Keeps teeth clean.
(n) Keeps nails trimmed and clean.
(o) Keeps hair clean and combed.
(p) Keeps clothes clean.
(q) Defecates away from pathways, sources of water and houses.
(r) Washes after defecation outside and not in pond /tank/stream.

3. Distributing families among members of the project team for door-to-door contact and preparing a time schedule for door-to door contact programmes, explaining the importance of desirable practices for better nutrition, health and sanitation and recording the practices present in the family in the checklist of desirable practices.

4. Discussing the problems encountered by the team members after every 3 contacts, analyzing why a particular desirable practice is not achieved, finding out possible solution to reinforce the programme.

5. Consolidation the records of desirable practices on the first and last contact programme for the entire community and seeing the impact of the programme on the basis of improvement in practice percentage.

6. Assessing individual performance of the project team members on the project team members on the basis of their integrity and honesty and improvement in practice percentage in the families assigned to them.

Activity 3: First Aid.

First aid is the immediate the temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness. The main purpose of first aid is to preserve life, assist recovery and prevent aggravation of the condition until the availability of a doctor, or during transport to casualty home or hospital.

Specific Activities
1. Preparation and use of First Aid Kit.
2. Dressing of wounds and bandaging.
3. management of simple injuries and emergencies :
(a) Bleeding.
(b) Shock drawing
(c) Burns
(d) Snakebites
(e) Fractures
(f) Poisoning

Activity 4 : Plantation of Shade /Fuel / Ornamental /Avenue trees. Importance of trees for ecological balance of the environment. Local and exotic trees for various purposes. Factors affecting normal growth of the plants. Specific problems pertaining to certain tree species and their solution. Raising seedlings in the nursery, nursery management, vegetative propagation of ornamental trees. Planning layout, planting and after care.

Specific Activities

2. Preparation of herbaria of the various trees.
3. Phenological observations on vegetative growth, emergence of new shoots/leaves, flowering, fruiting etc.
4. Identification of seeds, seed treatment before showing in the nursery.
5. Preparation of nursery beds for sowing the seeds.
6. Raising seedlings in the nursery and nursery management.
7. Vegetative propagation by cuttings, layering.
8. Layout for planting.
9. Digging pits for planting.
10. Preparation of soil-manure mixture for filling the pits.
11. Transfer of seedlings for plantation.
12. Planting with the help of planting board or rope.
13. Providing tree-guards/fencing for protection (made or iron bars/empty old drums/ thorny twigs/bricks/barbed wire/live fence, etc.)
14. After care of the plants; watering, weeding mulching, hoeing, protection against disease,pests, animals, adverse weather conditions, etc.

Activity 5 : Acquaintance with Common fertilizers nitrogenous, phosphatic concept of bio-fertilizers, micro-nutrients, common insecticides, fungicides, weedicides. Calculation of doses. Plant protection equipment; various types of sprayers and dusters, maintenance of PP equipment. Methods of fertilizers application soil and foliar application.

Specific Activities
1. Identification of various fertilizers, fungicides, insecticides, Weedicides bio-fertilizers.
2. Identification of various parts of sprayers and dusters.
3. Calibration of PP equipment.
4. Calculation of doses of fertilizers, pesticides, etc. for specific purpose.
5. Preparation of working solution of PP chemicals.
6. Use of PP equipment.
7. Fertilizers application through basal dressing, top dressing and foliar spraying.
8. Use of bio-fertilizers for legume crops.
9. Band placement of fertilizers in horticulture crops.
10. General observations of crops/plants/after application of fertilizers/ pesticides and their comparison with the untreated ones.

Activity 6 : Acquaintance with common Pests and Diseases of Plants and Use of Simple Chemicals and Plant Protection Equipment.

Significance of pests and diseases in agriculture. Their control measures. General idea about biological and integrated control measures. Common insecticides, fungicides, weedicides. Common plant protection equipment, their construction details, simple repairs and maintenance. Precautions diseases of important field crops, vegetable and fruit crops.
1. Specific Activities.
2. Collection and preservation of insects, their larvae, pupae, eggs.
3. Collection and preservation of diseases affected plant parts.
4. Identification and description of pests and diseases of crops.
5. Identification of plant protection chemicals.
6. Estimation of crops damage due to pests and diseases.
7. Cleaning, maintenance and simple repairs of PP equipment.
8. Operation of PP equipment.
9. Preparation of working solutions of PP chemicals.
10. Observation of plant after application of PP chemicals.
11. Comparison between the treated and untreated plants.
12. Seed treatment with fungicides.

Activity 7 : preparation of Family Budget and maintenance of Daily House hold Accounts.

Specific Activities
1. Identification importance of house hold accounts.
2. Learning the procedure of recording transactions.
3. Keeping records of expense, vouchers, receipts, bill etc.
4. Preparing simple receipts and payment account in the register systematically and neatly.
5. Comparing past receipts and payments with present receipts and payments.

Specific Activities
1. Discriminating between necessities, comforts and luxuries of different families.
2. Preparing a list of consumable articles of the family.
3. Collecting comparative prices for the required consumable articles.
4. Allocating the family income on various heads.
5. Preparing family budget.
6. Making a comparative study of the budget of families from lower class, lower middle and middle class.

Activities 8 : Use of Bus and Railway Time Table and Other Information Sources.

Specific Activities
1. Appreciating the importance of bus, railway and other time-tables.
2. Collecting bus time-table from the bus stand and railway time-table from railway station.
3. Studying various parts of time-tables.
4. Learning procedures of consulting bus and railway time-table.
Planning bus and railway journey for purposes and different destinations and routes.

Activity 9 : Helping School Authorities in Organizing.
(a) Picnics, Tours, Excursions, Functions.
(b) Exhibitions.

Specific Activities

1. Helping school authorities in the organization of picnics, tours, excursion and school functions :
(a) Planning the program
(b) Forming groups for different functions such as conveyance, food games and entertainment, collection of funds and maintenance of accounts.
(c) Making arrangements/preparation of each activity.
(d) Organizing/performing activities on the day of the picnic tour/ excursion, function.
(e) Evaluation the success of the programme/effectiveness of the activity under-taken.

2. Helping school authorities in organizing exhibitions :
(a) Planning the program.
(b) Collecting/making exhibits and keeping them safely
(c) Collecting suitable tables, boards, etc. for display
(d) Cleaning and decorating the exhibits on proper sports according to plan
(e) Doing reception duty on the day of the exhibition
(f) Explaining exhibits to the visitors
(g) Collecting the exhibits to the visitors
(h) Collecting the exhibits after the exhibition and restoring them to their own we/the school authorities
(i) Putting back the furniture, etc, in in its proper place.

Activity 10 : Participation in adult-literacy Programmes.

Specific Activities

1. Survey to the neighbourhood and identification of adult illiterates.
2. Making door-to-door visits and persuading them to join literacy classes.
3. Grouping the illiterates according to their age, occupation and interests.
4. Grouping students on the basis of their known capabilities and interests.
5. Selecting literacy materials with the guidance and help of the teacher.
6. Making spatial and physical arrangements for conducting the programme.
7. Making adequate preparation for teaching, including the selection of teaching aids.
9. Getting together in class and reviewing the progress of work and problems, if any.
10. Correcting the teaching methods and procedures in the light of experience.
11. Evaluating the progress of adult literacy and maintaining records. materials, Tools and Equipment Required : Charts, maps, register, almirah, etc.

Activity 11 : material for Classroom Use.

Specific Activities

1. Identification of the concept/topic/lesson for which teaching aids are to be prepared.
2. Identification of the teaching aids to be prepared-flashcards, chart, model, scrapbook, flannel board, improved apparatus etc.
3. Making a plan/working drawing of the teaching aid as also a list of tools and materials required.
4. Collecting materials needed for making it.
5. Preparing the teaching aid under the guidance of the teacher.
6. Using the teaching aid on a sample of students to find out its effectiveness and defects.
7. Correcting the defects.
8. Submitting it to the school authorities for use.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Physical and Health Education

Physical and Health Education

1. Athletics
(a) Running Events – Sprints (including hurdles) and middle and long distance events Emphasis is to be laid to correct starting and finishing techniques, running action including foot plantation and body carriage.
(b) Jumping Events-Consolidation of shot put and discus throw techniques and introduction of basic fundamental of javelin and hammer throws.
(c) Participation in exercise schedules for improving different motor components namely speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and coordinative abilities.
Note:-(i) At this stage the student has to aim for his performance attainment and hence he should select one event for specialization. More than one event be chosen only if logical relation exists between them.
(ii) Introduction of basic rules related to the events.

2. Gymnastics
A. Boys
(a) Repetition of previously learnt skills.
(b) Skills (floor Exercises)
Round of
(c) Vaulting Horse
Take off and sitting on the long horse
Straddle from the standing position on long horse
(d) Parallel Bars.
Different kinds of mounts and dismounts
One bar roll
Shoulder stand
‘L’ position hold
(e) Horizontal Bar
Different types of grips
Back turn over
One leg circle forward
Simple swing

B. Girls
(a) Repetition of skills learnt in the previous class .
(b) Skills (Floor exercises)
One hand cartwheel
Round off
(c) Balancing Beam
Dancing movements
Running movements
Fount roll and back roll
Different balances
(d) Vaulting Horse
Wolf vault (side vault)
Cat spring and jump on long horse.

C. Conditioning exercises of different type for developing motor components essential for gymnastics.

3. Yoga
Dhanurasana
Kukutasana
Mayurasana
Suptavajrasana
Vakasana
Gaumukhasana
Supt-pawan Muktasana
Halasanal
Shalabhasana
Naukasana
Shirshasana.

4. Major Games (Any two to be chosen from the following)
(a) Cricket
(b) Football
(c) Hockey
(e) Volleyball
(f) Handball
(g) Kho-Kho
(i) Table Tennis
(k) Wrestling
(l) Judo

Emphasis is to be laid on consolidation of technique and learning of basis tactical patterns. These games be Played in full size fields, if available. In case only small play area is available, these games be played in modified form.
Participation in exercise schedules for improving different motor components namely speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and coordinative abilities.

Introduction of basic rules related to the games.

5. Swimming
(a) Emphasis is to be laid on the consolidation of techniques of all strikes and learning of basic tactical patterns, using competitive distances.
(b) Participation in exercise schedules for improving different motor components related to swimming.
(c) Consolidation of water polo skills and dives.
(d) Introduction to basic rules of swimming, water polo and diving.

Note : At this stage the student has to aim for high performance attainment and hence he should select one event for specialization. More than one event be chosen only if logicalrelation exists between them.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 10 Education for Human Values

Education For Human Values

Periods: One period per week of 40 minutes duration

1. Values to be Emphasized
(a) Social Values
(i) Accountability
(ii) Belongingness to a group
(iii) Concern for posterity
(iv) Co- operation
(v) Dignity of Labour
(vi) Freedom of the human spirit
(vii) Generosity
(viii) Gratitude
(ix) Hospitality
(x) Justice
(xii) Non-violence (avoidance of injury to others)
(xiii) Patient
(xiv) Patriotism
(xv) Reverence
(xvi) Sportsmanship
(xvii) Tolerance
(xviii) Respective for law
(xix) Respect for religions culture, language, castes etc.

(b) Ethical Values
(i) Avoidance of book-biting
(ii) Comparison
(iii) Contentment
(iv) Courtesy
(v) Dutifulness
(vi) Equanimity
(vii) Fearlessness
(viii) Forgiveness
(ix) Friendliness
(x) Harmony between though work and deed
(xi) Honesty
(xii) Keeping one Promise
(xiii) Respect for laws
(xiv) Sacrifice
(xv) Service
(xvi) Sincerity
(xvii) Sympathy
(xviii) Work is worship

(c) Personal Values
(i) Appreciation of beauty in all its forms.
(ii) Cleanliness
(iii) Diligence
(iv) Discrimination
(v) Importance of Physical fitness including food, clothing
(vi) Nature Appreciation
(vii) Optimism
(viii) Personal Hygiene
(ix) Punctuality
(x) Pursuits of excellence and Perfection.

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