# HPBOSE Syllabus Class 11 – HP Board 11th Syllabus

## HPBOSE Syllabus Class 11 – HP Board 11th Syllabus

HPBOSE Syllabus Class 11 – HP Board 11th Syllabus

Unit-I : Set and Functions

1: Sets and Functions (Periods 12)
Sets and their representations, Empty set. Finite and infinite sets, Equal sets, Subsets, Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set, Universal set, Venn diagrams, Union and intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.

2. Relations and Functions (Periods 15)
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the sets of reals with itself (up to, R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, codomain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain & range of a function. Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

3. Trigonometric Functions (Periods 18)
Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x= 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin (x + y) and cos (x + y) in terms of sin x, sin y, cos x & cos y. Deducing the identities like following :

tan(x ± y) = tanx±tany1∓tanxtany, cot(x ± y) = cotxcoty∓1coty±cotx,

sin x + sin y = 2 sin
x + y
2
cos , cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos
sin x – sin y = 2 cos sin , cos x – cos y = –2 sin sin

Identities related to sin 2x, cos 2x, tan 2x, sin 3x, cos 3x and tan 3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sinq =sina, cosq = cosa and tan q = tan a. Proofs and simple applications of sine and cosine formula.

Unit -II : Algebra

1. Principle of Mathematical Induction – (06) Periods
Processes of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations – (10) Periods
Need for complex numbers, especially , to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.

3. Linear Inequalities – (10) Periods
Linear inequalities, Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables-graphically.

4. Permutations & Combinations : (12) Periods
Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. Permutations and combinations, derivation of formula and their connections, simple applications.

5. Binomial Theorem – (08) Periods
History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

6. Sequence and Series – (10) Periods
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A.P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.) general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P. geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of the special series Sn, Sn2 and Sn3.

Unit-III : Coordinate Geometry

1. Straight Lines – (09) Periods
Brief recall of 2D from earlier classes. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line : parallel to axes, pointslope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.

2. Conic Sections – (12) Periods
Sections of cone : circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, Standard equation of a circle.

3. Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry (08) Periods
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

Unit-IV : Calculus

1. Limits and Derivatives – (18) Periods
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.

Unit-V : Mathematical Reasoning

1. Mathematical Reasoning – (08) Periods
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/phrases consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contapositive.

Unit-VI : Statistics & Probability

1. Statistics – (10) Periods
Measure of dispersion; Mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

2. Probability – (10) Periods
Random experiments : outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events : occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events.

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Sociology

Introducing Sociology

Unit I : Society & Sociology – 10 Marks (Periods 22)

• Introducing Society : Individuals and collectivities. Plural Perspectives

• Introducing Sociology : Emergence. Nature & Scope. Relationship to other disciplines.

Unit II : Basic Concepts – 10 Marks (Periods 22)

• Social Groups

• Status and Role

• Social Stratification

• Social Control

Unit III : Social Institutions – 10 Marks (Periods 24)

• Family and Kinship
• Political and Economic Institutions

• Religion as a Social Institution

• Education as a Social Institution

Unit IV : Culture and Society – 10 Marks (Periods 20)

• Culture. Values and Norms : Shared. Plural. Contested
• Socialization : Conformity. Conflict and the Shaping of Personality

Unit V : Practical Sociology : Methods & Techniques – 10 Marks (Periods 22)

• Tools and Techniques ; Observation. Survey. Interview
• The Significance of Field Work in Sociology

Understanding Society

Unit VI : Structure, Process and Stratification – 10 Marks (Periods 22)
1. Social Structure
2. Social Processes: Cooperation,Competition, Conflict
3. Social Stratification: Class, Caste, Race, Gender.

Unit VII : Social Change – 10 Marks (Periods 22)
1. Social change : Types and Dimensions; Causes and Consequences.
2. Social Order : Domination, Authority & Law; Contestation Crime & Violence
3. Village, Town & City : Changes in Rural & Urban Society.

Unit VIII : Environment and Society – 10 Marks (Periods 18)
1. Ecology and Society
2. Environmental Crises and Social Responses

Unit IX : Western Social Thinkers – 10 Marks (Periods 24)
1. Karl Marx on Class Conflict
2. Emile Durkheim on Division of Labour
3. Max Weber on Bureaucracy

Unit X : Indian Sociologists – 10 Marks (Periods 24)
1. G.S. Ghurye on Race and Caste
2. D.P. Mukherji on Tradition and Change
3. A.R. Desai on the State
4. M.N. Srinivas on the Village

Prescribed Books:
1. Sociology-I NCERT Publication
2. Sociology-II NCERT Publication

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Physics

Physics
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 70

Theory

Unit-I : Physical World and Measurement (Periods 10)
Physics-scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
Need for measurement : Units of measurement ; systems of units ; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit-II : Kinematics (Periods 30)
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line : Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.

Scalar and vector quantities : Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit-III : Laws of Motion (Periods 16)
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion : Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit-IV : Work, Energy and Power (Periods 16)
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces : conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces : elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit-V : Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body (Periods 18)
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit-VI : Gravitation (Periods 14)
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite.
Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit-VII : Properties of Bulk Matter (Periods 28)
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat-calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.

Unit VIII : Thermodynamics (Periods 12)
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics : reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

Unit IX : Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory (Periods 8)
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit X : Oscillations and Waves (Periods 28)
Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.
Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.- Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum- derivation of expression for its time period;free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

Practicals
Maximum Marks: 30

Note : Every student will perform 10 experiments (5 from each section) and 8 activities (4 from each section) during the academic year.

Two demonstration experiments must be performed by the teacher with participation of students. The students will maintain a record of these demonstration experiments.

Evaluation Scheme for Practical Examination

• One experiment from any one section-8 Marks

• Two activities (one from each section)- (4 + 4) 8 Marks

• Practical Record (experiments & activities)-6 Marks

• Record of demonstration experiments & Viva Based on these experiments-3 Marks

• Viva on experiments & activities-5 Marks

Section-A

Experiments
1. Use of Vernier Calipers
(i) To measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body.
(ii) To measure dimensions of a given regular body of known mass and hence find its density.
(iii) To measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/ calorimeter and hence find its volume.

2. Use of screw gauge
(i) To measure diameter of a given wire,
(ii) To measure thickness of a given sheet
(iii) To measure volume of an irregular lamina.

3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.

4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.

5. Using a simple pendulum, plot L-T and L-T2 graphs. Hence find the effective length of second’s pendulum using appropriate graph.

6. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.

7. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination by plotting graph between force and sinq.

Activities
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2cm, 0.5cm.
2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments.
3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.
5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.
6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane (using a double inclined plane).
7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.

Section-B

Experiments
1. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.
2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting graph between load and extension.
3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and I / V.
4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.
5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve.
7. (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer.
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer.
8. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by two-resonance positions.
9. To determine specific heat of a given (i) solid (ii) liquid, by method of mixtures.

Activities
1. To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.
2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.
3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.
4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise.
5. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.
6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle.

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Political Science

Part A : Indian Constitution at Work

1. Making of the constitution: (8 Periods)
Why do we need a constitution ? What does a constitution do ? Who made our constitution ? How did the country’s partition affect the working of the Constituent Assembly ? What were the sources of the constitution ?

2. Fundamental Rights: (10 Periods)
Why do we need bill of rights in a constitution ? What are the fundamental rights provided by the constitution ? Why was the right to property removed from fundamental rights ? How have the interpretations by the courts influenced fundamental rights ? How has provision of fundamental rights provided the basis for civil liberties movement in India ? What are the fundamental duties ?

3. System of representational democracy: (12 Periods)
What are the different methods of representations ? How do these methods affect parties and politics ? Why was the first past the post system chosen in India ? What have been the effects of this system ? Why is there a system of reserved seats ? What are the provisions to ensure free and fair elections ? What does the Election Commission do ?

4. Executive in a parliamentary system : (15 Periods)
Why was the parliamentary system chosen over other forms of government ? Why does the parliamentary system need a constitutional head ? How are the prime minister and the chief ministers elected ? What are the powers of the President of India ? What are the powers of the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister and the council of ministers ? What are the powers of the governor ?

5. Legislature at the central and state level : (15 Periods)
Why does the parliament of India have two Houses ? How are the Parliament and the state assemblies constituted ? What are the powers of the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha ? How are the laws passed ? How is the executive made accountable ? What are the constitutional means to prevent defection ?

6. Judiciary :(12 Periods)
What is Rule of law ? Why do we need an independent judiciary ? What are the provisions that ensure the independence of judiciary in India ? How are judges appointed ? What are the powers of the Supreme and the High courts ? How do they use their jurisdiction for public interest.

7. Federalism : (8 Periods)
What is federalism ? How does federalism ensure accommodation of diversities ? In which ways is the Indian constitution federal ? In which ways does the constitution strengthen the centre ? Why are there special provisions for some states and areas ?

8. Local Government (8 Periods)
Why do we need decentralization of power ? What has been the status of local government in the constitution ? What are the basic features of rural and urban local governments ? What has been the effect of giving constitutional status to local governments ?

9. Political Philosophy underlying the constitution : (8 Periods)
What are the core provisions of the constitution ? What is the vision underlying these core provisions ? How is this vision shaped by modern Indian political thought ?

10. Constitution as a living document: (8 Periods)
How has the constitution changed since its inception ? Why further changes are being debated ? How has the working of democracy affected the constitution ?

Part-B: Political Theory

11. Introduction to Political Theory: (10 Periods)
What is politics ? Do we find politics in seemingly non- political domains ? Can political arguments be resolved through reasoning? Why do we need political theory ?

12. Freedom: (12 Periods)
What is freedom ? What are reasonable constraints on individual liberty ? How are the limits defined ?

13. Equality (12 Periods)
Do all differences involve inequality ? Does equality imply sameness ? What are the major forms of inequality ? How can equality be realized ?

14. Social Justice: (12 Periods)
Is justice all about fairness ? What is the relationship between justice and equality ? What are the different forms of injustice ? In which ways can justice be secured ?

15. Rights: (12 Periods)
How is a right different from any claim ? What are the major kinds of right claims ? How do we resolve a conflict between individual and community rights ? How does the state enable and obstruct rights ?

16. Citizenship: (12 Periods)
Who is a citizen ? What are relevant grounds for inclusion and exclusion ? How are new claims to citizenship negotiated ? Can we have a global citizenship.

17. Nationalism (10 Periods)
How are the boundaries of a nation defined ? Must every nation have a state ? What demands can a nation make on its citizens ? What is the basis of the right to self determination ?

18. Secularism (10 Periods)
What is secularism ? Which domains of life does it relate to ? What is a secular state ? Why do we need secular state in modern times ? Is secularism suitable for India ?

19. Peace (8 Periods)
What is peace ? Does peace always require non-violence ? Under what conditions is war justified ? Can armament promote global peace ?

20. Development (8 Periods)
What is development ? Is there a universally accepted model of development ? How to balance the claims of present generation with claims of future generations ?

Prescribed Books:

1. Indian Constitution at Work NCERT Publication
2. Bharat Ka Samvidhan NCERT Publication (Sidhant Aur Vyavhar)

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Psychology

Foundations of Psychology (90 Periods)

Unit I : What is Psychology ? – 08 Marks (16 Periods)
The unit seeks to develop understanding and appreciation of psychology as a discipline, its evolution, its applications and its relationships with other sciences through appropriate and interesting examples and analysis of everyday experience.

What is psychology ? Popular notions about discipline of psychology; Understanding mind and behaviour; Evolution of psychology; Branches of psychology: Themes of research and applications; Psychology and other disciplines; Psychologists at work, Development of Psychology in India.

Unit II : Methods of Enquiry in Psychology – 09 Marks (20 Periods)
The objective of this unit is to discuss methods of enquiry for collecting and analyzing psychological data.

Goals of psychological enquiry; Nature of psychological data; Some important methods: Observational, Experimental, Correlational, Survey, Psychological testing, Case study; Analysis of data : measures of central Tendency-computation, Graphical Presentation of Data- Bar, Histogram, Polygon Limitations of psychological enquiry; Ethical issues.

Unit III : Chapter 3 The Bases of Human Behaviour – 08 Marks (20 Periods)
The unit will focus on the role of biological and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of human behaviour.

Evolutionary perspective; Biological basis : Biological and cultural roots; Biology of behaviour : Structure and functions of nervous system and endocrine system; Relationship of nervous system and endocrine system with behaviour and experience; Brain and behaviour; Heredity : Genes and behaviour; Cultural basis : Sociocultural shaping of behaviour (e.g. family, community, faith, gender, caste, disability etc.) Socialisation, enculturation and acculturation.

Unit IV : Chapter 4 Human Development – 07 Marks (16 Periods.)
This unit deals with variations in development and the developmental tasks during the life span.

Meaning of development; Factors influencing development; Context of development; Overview of developmental stages : infancy, Childhood, Challenges of Adolescence, Adulthood and Old age.

Unit V : Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes – 08 Marks (20 Periods)
This unit aims at understanding how various sensory stimuli are received, attended to and given meaning.

Knowing the world; Nature and varieties of stimulus; Sense modalities; Adaptation; Attentional processes; Selective and sustained attention; Perceptual processes; The Perceiver; Principles of perceptual organisation; After images; Perception of space, depth and distance; Perceptual constancies; Illusions; Sociocultural influences on perception.

Unit VI : Learning – 08 Marks (20 Periods.)
This unit focuses on how one acquires new behaviour and how changes in behaviour take place.

Nature of learning; Paradigms of learning : Classical and Operant conditioning, Observational learning, Cognitive learning, Verbal learning, Concept learning Skill-learning; Factors facilitating learning; Transfer of learning Types Applications The Learner : Learning styles; Learning disabilities ; Applications of learning principles.

Unit VII : Human Memory- 08 Marks (20 Periods.)
This unit deals with how information is received stored, retrieved and lost. It will also discuss how memory can be improved.

Nature of memory; Information Processing Approach; Levels of processing; Memory systems-Sensory memory, Short-term memory, Long-term memory; Knowledge representation and organisation in memory; Memory as a constructive process; Nature and causes of forgetting; Enhancing memory.

Unit VIII : Thinking – 07 Marks (20 Periods.)
This unit deals wiinking and related processes like reasoning, problem-solving, decision making and creative thinking. The relationship between thought and language will also be discussed.
Nature of thinking ; Thought and language; Development of language and language use; Reasoning; Problem-solving; Decision making; Creative Thinking: Nature, Process and development.

Unit IX : Motivation and Emotion – 07 Marks (18 Periods.)
This unit focuses on why human beings behave as they do. It also deals with how people experience positive and negative events and respond to them.
Nature of motivation; Biological motives; Social and psychological motives-Achievement, Affiliation and Power; Maslow’s hierachy of needs; Nature of emotions; Physiological, cognitive and cultural bases of emotions; Expression of emotions; Enhancing positive emotions, e.g. Happiness. Optimism etc.; Managing negative emotions, e.g. anger, fear, etc.

Practicals (Projects, experiments, small studies, etc.) 30 Marks (60 Periods)
The students shall be required to undertake one project and conduct three practicals. The project would involve the use of different methods of enquiry and related skills. Practicals would involve undertaking experiments and conducting small studies, exercises, related to the topics covered in the course (Human development, Learning, Memory, Motivation, Perception, Attention, Thinking)
(i) Reporting file including Project work – 05 Marks
(ii) Viva Cove – 05 Marks
(iii) Two experiments : 10 marks each (05 for accurate conduct and 05 for reporting)

Prescribed Books:

1. Psychology NCERT Publication

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Accountancy

Part A : Financial Accounting I (Periods 120)

Unit 1 : Introduction to Accounting (Periods 14)
(a) Accounting – Meaning, Objectives, Accounting as source of information, internal and external users of Accounting Information and their needs.
(b) Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information : Reliability, Relevance, Understandability and Comparability.
(c) Basic Accounting Terms: Assets, Liability, Capital, Expense, Income, Expenditure Revenue, Debtors, Creditors, goods, cost, Gain, Stock, Purchase, Sales, Loss, Profit, Voucher, Discount, Transaction, Drawings.

Unit 2 : Theory Base of Accounting (Periods 14)
Accounting Principles : Meaning and nature
Accounting Concepts : Entity, Money Measurement, Going Concern, Accounting Period, Cost Concept, Dual Aspect. Revenue Recognition (Realisation), Matching, Accrual, Full Disclosure, Consistency, Conservatism, Materiality.

Accounting Standards : Concept
Process of accounting-from recording of business transactions to preparation of trial balance.
Bases of Accounting- Cash Basis, Accrual Basis.

Unit 3 : Recording of Business Transactions (Period 26)
Voucher and Transactions : Origin of Transactions-Source Documents and Vouchers, preparation of Accounting Vouchers ; Accounting

Equation Approach- Meaning and Analysis of transactions using Accounting Equation : Rules of Debit and Credit.

Recording of Transactions : Books of original entry-Journal, Special Purpose Books:-

1. Cash Book- Simple, Cashbook with Bank Column and Petty Cashbook,

2. Purchases Book, Sales Book, Purchase Returns Book, Sales Returns Book ; Ledger-meaning, utility, format; posting from Journal and Subsidiary books; Balancing of Accounts.

Bank Reconciliation Statement : Meaning, Need and Preparation, Corrected Cash Balance.

Unit 4 : Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors (Periods 22)
Trial Balance : Meaning, Objectives and Preparation.
Errors : Types of Errors, errors affecting Trial Balance and Errors not affecting Trial Balance.
Detection and Rectification of Errors (One Sided and Two Sided); use of Suspense Account.

Unit 5 : Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves (Periods 22)
Depreciation : Meaning and Need for charging depreciation, Factors affecting depreciation, Methods of depreciation – Straight Line method, Written Down Value Method (excluding change in method), Method of recording depreciation-charging to asset account, creating provision for depreciation/accumulated depreciation account; Treatment of disposal of asset.
Provisions and Reserves : Meaning and importance, difference between Provisions and Reserves, types of Reserves : Revenue Reserve, Capital Reserve, General Reserve, Specific Reserve and Secret Reserves.

Unit 6 : Accounting for Bills of Exchange Transaction (Periods 22)
Bills of Exchange and Promissory Note : Definition, Features, Parties, Specimen, Distinction.
Important Terms : Term of Bill, Concept of Accommodation Bill, Days of Grace, Date of Maturity, Bill at Sight, Negotiation, Endorsement, Discounting of bill, Dishonour, Retirement and Renewal of a bill. Accounting Treatment of bill transactions.

Part B : Financial Accounting-II (Periods 88)

Unit 7 : Financial Statements (Periods 44)
Financial Statements : Meaning and Users.
Distinction between capital Expenditure and Revenue Expenditure.
Trading and Profit and Loss Account : Gross Profit, Operating Profit; Net Profit.
Balance Sheet : need, grouping and marshalling of Assets and Liabilities, Vertical Presentation of Financial Statement.
Adjustments in preparation of financial statements with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued Income, Income received In advance, depreciation and bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, manager’s commission.
Preparation of Trading and Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship.

Unit 8 : Computers in Accounting (Periods 24)
Introduction to Computer and Accounting information System (AIS) Applications of computers in accounting.
Automation of accounting process, designing accounting reports, MIS reporting, data exchange with other information systems.
Comparison of accounting processes in manual and computerized accounting, highlighting advantages and limitations of automation.
Sourcing of accounting system : ready made and customized and tailor-made accounting system. Advantages and disadvantages of each option.

Unit 9 : Accounts from Database System (Periods 20)
Accounting and Database Management System.
Concept of entity and relationship : entities and relationships in an Accounting System : designing and creating simple tables, forms, queries and reports in the context of Accounting System.

Prescribed Books:
1. Accountancy-I NCERT Publication
2. Accountancy-II NCERT Publication

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Business Studies

Part A : Foundations of Business (Periods 104)

Unit 1 : Nature and Purpose of Business (Periods 20)

• Concept and characteristics of business.

• Business, profession and employment – distinctive features.

• Objectives of business – economic and social, role of profit in business

• Classification of business activities : Industry and Commerce.

• Industry – types : primary, secondary, tertiary.

• Commerce : Trade and Auxiliaries.

• Business risks – nature and causes.

Unit 2 : Forms of Business Organisations (Periods 24)

• Sole Proprietorship; Joint Hindu Family Business-meaning, features, merits and limitations;
• Partnership-meaning, types, registration, merits, limitations, types of partners;

• Cooperative Societies-types , merits and limitations.

• Company : Private Ltd. Public Ltd.- merits, limitations;

• Choice of form of business organizations.

• Starting a business-Basic factors.

Unit 3 : Private, Public & Global Enterprises (Periods 20)

• Private Sector and Public Sector.

• Forms of organising public sector enterprises

• Departmental Undertaking

• Statutory Corporation

• Government Company

• Changing role of public sector

• Global Enterprises (Multinational Companies) meaning and features, joint ventures-meaning, benefits.

Unit 4 : Business Services (Periods 18)

• Nature and types of Business services-Banking, Insurance, Transportation, Ware housing, Communication.

• Banking-types of Banks, Functions of Commercial banks, E-banking

• Insurance-principles, types : life, fire and marine

• Postal and Telecom services.

• Warehousing : types and functions.

Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business (Periods 10)

• E-Business-Meaning, scope and benefits, Resources required for successful e-business implementation, On-line transactions, payment mechanism, security and safety of business transactions

• Outsourcing-concept, need and scope.

Unit 6 : Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics (Periods 12)

• Concept of social responsibility.

• Case for Social responsibility;

• Responsibility towards owners, investors; employees, consumers, government, community and public in general;

• Business and environmental protection

• Business ethics : concept and elements.

Part-B : Corporate Organisation, Finance and Trade (Periods 104)

Unit 7 : Formation of a Company (Periods 16)

• Stages in the formation of a company;

• Promotion

• Incorporation, and

• Commencement of business

Unit 8 : Sources of Business Finance (Periods 20)

• Nature and significance

• Owner’s funds and borrowed funds

• Sources of raising Finance: Equity and Preference shares, Global Depository Receipt, American Depository Receipt, Debentures and Bonds, Retained Profits, Public deposits, Loan from Financial Institutions, Loans from commercial Banks and Trade Credit.

Unit 9 : Small Business (Periods 14)

• Small Scale Industry; Tiny Sector; cottage and rural industry

• Role of small business in rural India;

• Problems of small business in India.

• Government Assistance and Special Schemes for Industries in rural, backward and hilly areas.

Unit 10 : Internal Trade (Periods 20)

• Meaning and types of internal trade : wholesale and retail ;

• Services of a wholesaler and a retailer.

• Types of Retail Trade : Itinerant retailers and fixed shops, Departmental store, super market, malls, chain store, mail order business, consumer’s cooperative store, Automatic Vending Machine

• Role of Chamber of Commerce and Industry in promotion of internal trade.

Unit 11 : International Business (Periods 12)

• Nature, Importance and complexities involved in International Business;

• Ways of entering into international Business. Export-Import Procedures and documentation. Foreign Trade Promotion. Organizational support and incentives; Nature and importance of Export Processing Zone/ special Economic Zone; International Trade Institutions and Agreement : WTO, UNCTAD, World Bank, IMF.

Part-C

Unit-12 : Project Work (Practical)
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 10

Suggestive/Illustrative Projects

Any one of the following:
(i) Find out from local sample business unit (s) the various objectives they pursue.
(ii) Problems of setting up and running business units.
(iii) Enquiry into the ethics of running business through questionnaires.
(iv) Survey of quality of bank services in the local branch office.
(v) Study of postal and courier mail services.
(vi) Availability and use of agency services, advertising, packaging, investments in savings schemes, etc.
(vii) Survey of the popularity of credit cards issued by different banks.
(viii) Study the profile of a sole trader/partnership commenting on the nature and working of business.
(ix) Study of a Joint Hindu family business.
(x) Study of the working of any cooperative society.
(xi) Study of a small business unit regarding source of finance.
(xii) Nature of different traders (like hawkers and pedlars in a specific locality) in issue of goods, capital investment, turnover.
(xiii) Study of weekly bazaar in a locality.
(xiv) Study of franchise retail store.
(xv) Study of export/import of any article.
(xvi) Problems of women entrepreneurs in business.
(xvii) Waste/garbage disposal.
(xviii) Study of pavement trade.
(xix) Prepare a scrapbook and collect articles on the changing role of public sector and any other topics related to the syllabus.

Marks may be suitably distributed over the different parts of the Project Report.

1. Objectives

2. Methodology

3. Conclusions-findings and suggestions

4. Viva.

Prescribed Books:

1. Business studies NCERT Publication

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Biology

Biology
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 70

Theory

I. Diversity in Living World (25 Periods)

• Diversity of living organisms

• Classification of the living organisms (five kingdom classification, major groups and principles of classification within each kingdom).

• Systematic and binomial System of nomenclature

• Salient features of animal (non chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level) and plant (major groups ; Angiosperms up to subclass) classification.

• Botanical gardens, herbaria, zoological parks and museums.

II. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants. (30 Periods)

• Tissues in animals and plants.
• Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants : Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed.

• Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of an annelid (earthworm), an insect (cockroach) and an amphibian (frog).

III. CELL : Structure and Function (40 Periods)

• Cell: Cell wall, cell membrane and cell organelles’ (plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles) and nuclear organization.

• Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle.

• Basic chemical constituents of living boides.

• Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.

• Enzymes : types, properties and function.

IV. Plant Physiology (40 Periods)
Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases, Plants and Water Mineral nutrition, Respiration, Photosynthesis, Plant growth and development.

V. Human Physiology (45 Period)

• Digestion and absorption.
• Breathing and respiration

• Body fluids and circulation.

• Excretory products and elimination.

• Locomotion and movement.

• Control and coordination.

Practicals
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 30

A. List of Experiments
1. Study and describe three common flowering plants (solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae)
2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (normal).
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. To detect them is suitable plant and animal materials.
8. Separate plant pigments through paper chromatography.
9. To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
10. To study effect of different temperatures on the activity of salivary analyse on starch.
11. To test the presence of urea in urine.
12. To detect the presence of sugar in urine/blood sample.
13. To detect the presence of albumin in urine.
14. To detect the presence of bile salts in urine.

B. Study / Observation of the Following Spotting
1. Study parts of a compound microscope.
2. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons-Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, Yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, Pinus, one monocotyledon and one Cotyledon and one lichen.
3. Study of specimens and identification with reasons-Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, Rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
4. Study of tissues, and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, Xylem, Phloem Squamous epithelium, muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
6. Study of different modifications in root, stem and leaves.
7. Study and identify different types of inflorescences.
8. Study of imbibition in seeds/ raisins.
9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up on :
(a) Anaerobic respiration
(b) Phototropism
(c) Apical bud removal
(d) Suction due to transpiration
10. To study human skeleton and different types of joints.
11. Study of external morphology of earthworm cockroach and frog through models.

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Economics

Part A : Statistics For Economics

In this course, the learners are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyze, interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, the learners are also expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data.

Unit 1 : Introduction – Periods 8
What is Economics ?
Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics.

Unit 2 : Collection, Organisation and Presentation of data- 26 Periods
Collection of data-sources of data-primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; Some important sources of secondary data : Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.

Organisation of Data : Meaning and types of variables ; Frequency Distribution.

Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagram (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

Unit 3 : Statistical Tools and Interpretation-70 Periods
(For all the numerical problems and solutions, the appropriate economic interpretation may be attempted. This means, the students need to solve the problems and provide interpretation for the results derived)

Measures of Central Tendency-mean (simple and weighted, median and mode.

Measures of Dispersion-absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve : Meaning and its application. Correlation-meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation-Karl Pearson’s method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman’s rank correlation. Introduction to Index Numbers -meaning, types-wholesale price index, consumer price index and index to industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

Part-B : Indian Economic Development

Unit 4 : Development Policies and Experience (1947-90) : (Periods 18)
A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence.

Common goals of Five Year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.) industry (industrial licensing, etc.) and foreign trade.

Unit 5 : Economic Reforms since 1991 : (Periods 14)
Need & main features-liberalization, globalization and privatization; An appraisal of LPG policies.

Unit 6 : Current challenges facing Indian Economy : (Periods 60)
Poverty -absolute and relative ; Main programs for poverty alleviation : A critical assessment; Rural development : Key issues-credit and marketing-role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming-organic farming.

Human Capital Formation : How people become resource ; Role of human capital in economic development, Growth of Education Sector in India.

Employment : Growth, informalisation and other issues : Problems and policies

Infrastructure : Meaning-and Types : Case Studies : Energy and Health : problems and Policies -a critical assessment.

Sustainable Economic Development : Meaning ; Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment.

Unit 7 : Development Experience of India :(Periods 12)
A comparison with neighbours

India and Pakistan
India and China
Issues : Growth, Population, Sectoral development and other developmental indicators.

Prescribed Books:

1. Statistics for Economics NCERT Publication
2. Indian Economic Development NCERT Publication

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 English Core

Section- A

Reading Unseen Passage For Comprehension and Note-Making -20 marks (40 Periods)

Two unseen passage with a variety of questions including 5 marks for vocabulary such as words formation and inferring meaning. The total length of both the passages together should be around 1100 words.
1. The passages could be any of the following two types :
2. (a) Factual passage e.g. instructions, descriptions, reports.
(b) Discursive Passages involving opinion e.g. argumentative, persuasive.

 Unseen Passages No. of Words Testing Areas Marks Allotted 1 12 marks around 600 Short answer type questions to test local, global and inferential comprehension 10 Vocabulary 2 2 8 marks around 500 Note-making in an appropriate format 5 Vocabulary 3

One of the passages should have about 600 words carrying 12 marks, the other passage should have about 500 words carrying 8 marks.

The passage carrying 08 marks should be used for testing note-making for 5 marks and testing vocabulary for 3 marks. Vocabulary for 2 marks may be tested in the other passage carrying 12 marks.

Section – B

 Writing 20 Marks 40 Periods 3 One out of two tasks such as a factual description of any event or incident, a report or a process based on verbal input provided (80-100 words). 04 marks 4 One out of two compositions based on a visual and/or verbal input (in about 100-150 words). The output may be descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article for publication in a newspaper or a school magazine or a speech. 08 marks 5 Writing one out of two letters based on given input. Letters types inlcude: (a) business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies). (b) letters to the editors (giving suggestions, opinions on an issue of public interest) or (c) application for a job 08 marks

Section-C

Grammar – 10 marks (30 Periods)

Different grammatical structures in meaningful context will be tested. Item types will include gap-filling, sentence – reordering dialogue-completion and sentence-transformation. The grammar syllabus will include the following areas :

 6 Determiners, Tenses, Clauses, Modals and Error Correction 4 marks 7 Editing Task 4 marks 8 Re-ordering of sentences 2 marks

Section – D

Textual Questions – 50 marks (100 Periods)

Questions on the prescribed textbooks will test comprehension at different levels; literal, inferential and evaluative based on the following prescribed text books :

 English Reader 35 marks 9 One out of two extracts based on poetry from the text to test comprehension and appreciation. 04 marks 10. Two out of three short answer questions from the poetry section to test local and global comprehension of text (up to 30 words). 06 marks 11 Five out of six short answer questions on the lessons from prescribed text (up to 30 words) 3 x 5 = 15 marks 12 One out of two long answer type questions based on the text to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the set text. (Expected word limit would be about 100-125 words each.) 10 marks Supplementary Reader 15 marks 13 One out of two long answer type questions based on Supplementary Reader to test comprehension of theme, character and incidents. (up to 100 words) 07 marks 14 Two out of three short answer questions from the Supplementary Reader (up to 30 words) 4+4= 8 marks

Prescribed Books :

1. English Reader Text book – Hornbill published by HPBSE Dharamshala.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Geography

Part A : Fundamentals of Physical Geography (Periods 75)

Unit 1 : Geography as a Discipline (Periods 3)
Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes. Branches of geography : importance of physical geography.

Unit 2 : The Earth (Periods 10)
Origin and evolution of the earth, Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics; earthquakes and volcanoes.

Unit 3 : Landforms (Periods 18)
Rocks : major types of rocks and their characteristics; Landforms and their evolution.
Geomorphic processes-weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.

Unit 4 : Climate (Periods 30)

• Atmosphere-composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.

• Insolation – angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth -heating and cooling of atmosphere, (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection;) temperature – factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature – horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.

• Pressure – pressure belts; winds – planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts, tropical and extra tropical and cyclones.

• Precipitation – evaporation; condensation – dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution;

• World climates – classification (Koeppen); greenhouse effect, global warming.

Unit 5 : Water (Oceans) (Periods 8)

• Hydrological Cycle.

• Oceans – distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water – waves, tides and currents.

Unit 6 : Life on the Earth (Periods 6)
Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystems and ecological balance.

Unit 7 : Map Work on outline political map of the world for identification only

Part B : India – Physical Environment (Periods 65)

Unit 8 : Introduction (Periods 3)
Location – space relations and India’s place in the world.

Unit 9: Physiography (Periods 23)

• Structure and Relief;

• Drainage systems – concept of water sheds; the Himalayan and the Peninsular;

• Physiographic divisions

Unit 10 : Climate, Vegetation and Soil (Periods 23)

• Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoons; mechanism, onset and withdrawal variability – spatial and temporal;
• Natural vegetation – forest – types and distribution; wild life; conservation ; biosphere reserves.
• Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation conservation.

Unit 11 : Natural Hazards and Disasters : Causes, Consequences and Management (One case study to be introduced for each topic) (Periods 16)

• Floods and droughts
• Earthquakes and Tsunami
• Cyclones
• Landslides

Unit 12 : Map Work on Outline Political map of India-for identification, location and labeling.

Practical Work (Periods 40)

Unit 1 : Fundamentals of Maps (Periods 12)

• Maps – types; scales – types; construction of linear scales, measuring distance, finding direction and use of symbols.
• Latitude, Longitude and time
• Map projection : Typology; construction and properties of conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection.

Unit 2 : Topographic and Weather Maps (Periods 28)

• Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 ; 25,000, Survey of India maps) : contour cross-section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys waterfalls, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
• Aerial Photographs and Satellite Imageries.
• Aerial Photographs : Types & Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps & aerial photographs; photo scale determination
• Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform & sensors and data products, (photographic & digital).
• Interpretation of Physical & cultural features from aerial photographs & satellite imageries.
• Use of weather instruments : thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge
• Use of weather charts : describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.

Prescribed Books:
1. Fundamental of Physical Geography NCERT Publication
2. India Physical Environment NCERT Publication
3. Practical Work in Geography NCERT Publication

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry

Chemistry
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 70

Theory

Unit I : Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (Periods 14)
General Introduction : Importance and scope of chemistry.
Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory : concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit II : Structure of Atom (Periods 16)
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concepts of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals-Aufuau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit III : Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties (Periods 8)
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements-atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.

Unit IV : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Periods 16)
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond : bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit V : States of Matter : gases and liquids (Periods 14)
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Liquid State-Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit VI : Thermodynamics (Periods 16)
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of DU and DH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization, and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, equilibrium.

Unit VII : Equilibrium (Periods 16)
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH.
Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Unit VIII : Redox Reactions (Periods 6)
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.

Unit IX : Hydrogen (Periods 8)
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X : S-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkali and Alkaline earth metals. (Periods 14)
Group 1 and Group-2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens ; uses.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

Unit XI : Some P-Block Elements (Periods 16)

General Introduction to P-Block Elements

Group 13 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compounds : borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum : uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element, Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties ; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses : silicon tetrachloride, silicone, silicates and zeolites.

Unit XII : Organic Chemistry-Some Basic Principles and Techniques (Periods 14)
General introduction, method, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond : inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Unit XIII : Hydrocarbons (Periods 16)

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Alkanes-Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism or halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

Alkenes- Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethane), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions : acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic hydrocarbons : Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation : directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Unit XIV : Environmental Chemistry (Periods 6)
Environmental pollution-air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes ; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Practicals Syllabus
Total Periods 60

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques (Periods 2)
(a) Cutting a glass tube and glass rod.
(b) Bending of a glass tube.
(c) Draw out, a glass jet.
(d) Boring a Cork.

B. Characterization and Purification of chemical substance (Periods 6)
1. Determination of melting point of organic compound.
2. Determination of boiling point of organic compound
3. Crystallization involving impure sample of anyone of the following: Alum, copper sulphate, Benzoic acid.

C. Experiments related of pH change (Periods 6)
(a) Anyone of the following experiments : Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.
Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.
(b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases.

D. Chemical Equilibrium (Periods 4)
One of the following experiments :
(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either ions.
(b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co (H2 O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Quantitative Estimation (Periods 16)

• Using a chemical balance.

• Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.

• Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid.

• Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.

• Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard sodium carbonate solution.

F. Qualitative analysis (Periods 16)
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt

Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, AI3+, Fe3+ Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+

Anions – CO32–, S2–, SO32, HO2-1, NO3-1, Cl–, Br–, I– PO43-, CH3 COO–

(Note : Insoluble salts excluded)

G. Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, Chlorine (Periods 10)
Bromine and iodine in an organic compound.

Project :
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A Few suggested Projects:

• Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.

• Study of the methods of purification of water.

• Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presences of these ions above permissible limit (if any).

• Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.

• Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.

• Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

• Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.

• Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.

Note : Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 period of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. (Periods 2)

Prescribed Books:

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 History

Themes In World History

Section A : Early Societies

 Themes Periods Objectives 1 Introduction to World History 8 2 Introduction 6 Familiarize the learner with ways of reconstructing human evolution. 3 From the Beginning of Time Focus : Africa, Europe till 15000 BC (a) Views on the origin of human beings. (b) Early societies (c) Historians’ views on present-day hunting–gathering societies. 14 Discuss whether the experience of present day hunting-gathering people can be used to understand early societies. 4 Early Cities Focus : Iraq, 3rd millennium BC (a) Growth of towns. (b) Nature of early urban societies. (c) Historians’ Debate on uses of writing. 12 Familiarize the learner with the nature of early urban centres. Discuss whether writing is significant as a marker of civilization.

Section-B : Empires

 Themes Periods Objectives 5 Introduction 6 6 An Empire across Three Continents Focus : Roman Empire, 27 B.C. to A.D. 600. (a) Political evolution (b) Economic expansion (c) Religion (d) Late Antiquity. (e) Historians views on the institution of Slavery. 12 Familiarize the learner with the history of a major world empire. Discuss whether slavery was a significant element in the economy. 7 Central Islamic Lands : Focus : 7th to 12 centuries (a) Polity (b) Economy (c) Culture (d) Historians viewpoints on the nature of the crusades. 12 Familiarize the learner with the rise of Islamic empires in the Afro-Asian territories and its implications for economy and society. Understand what the crusades meant in these regions and how they were experienced. 8 Nomadic Empires : Focus : the Mongol, 13th to 14th century (a) The nature of nomadism. (b) Formation of empires. (c) Conquests and relations with other states. (d) Historians’ views on nomadic societies and state formation 10 Familiarize the learner with the varieties of nomadic society and their institutions. Discuss whether state formation is possible in nomadic societies.

Section-C : Changing Traditions

 Themes Periods Objectives 9 Introduction 6 10 Three Orders Focus :Western Europe, 13th-16th Century (a) Feudal Society and economy : (b) Formation of States. (c) Church and Society. (d) Historian’s views on decline of feudalism 12 Familiarize the learner with the nature of the economy and society of this period and the changes within them. Show how the debate on the decline of feudalism helps in understanding processes of transition. 11 Changing cultural traditions Focus on Europe, 14th to 17th century (a) New ideas and new trends in literature and arts. (b) Relationship with earlier ideas. (c) The contribution of West Asia. (d) Historian’s view points on the validity of the notion ‘European Renaissance 14 Explore the intellectual trends in the period. Familiarize students with the paintings and buildings of the period. Introduce the debate around the idea of ‘Renaissance’. 12 Confrontation of Cultures Focus on the America 15th to 18th century. (a) European Voyages of exploration. (b) Search for gold; enslavement, raids, extermination. (c) Indigenous people and cultures – the Arawaks, the Aztecs, the Incas. (d) The History of displacements. (e) Historian’s view points on the slave trade. 12 Discuss changes in European economy that led to the voyages. Discuss the implications of the conquests for the indigenous people. Explore the debate on the nature of the slave trade and see what this debate tells us about the meaning of these “discoveries”.

Section D: Paths To Modernization

 13 Introduction 8 Understand the nature of growth in the period and its limits. 14 The Industrial Revolution. Focus on England, 18th and 19th century. (a) Innovations and technological change. (b) Patterns of growth. (c) Emergence of a working class. (d) Historians’ viewpoints Debate, Was there an Industrial Revolution ? 12 Initiate students to the debate on the idea of industrial revolution. 15 Displacing indigenous People. Focus on North America and Australia, 18th-20th century, (a) European colonists in North America and Australia. (b) Formation of white settler societies. (c) Displacement and repression of local people. (d) Historians view points on the impact of European settlement on indigenous population. 12 Sensitize students to the processes of displacements that accompanied the development of America and Australia. Understand the implications of such processes for the displaced populations. 16 Paths to Modernization Focus on East Asia. Late 19th and 20th century. (a) Militarization and Economic growth in Japan. (b) China and the Communist alternative. (c) Historians’ Debate on meaning of modernization 14 Make students aware that transformation in the modern world takes many different forms. Show how notions like ‘modernization’ need to be critically assessed. 17 Map Work on Units 1-15 10

Prescribed Books:

Themes in World History : N.C.E.R.T Publication.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Home Science

Theory

Unit-I: Concept of Home Science and Its Scope (Period-2)
Home Science, its scope

Unit II: Know Myself : Issues Related To Adolescents (Period-33)
Adolescence, meaning, early (12-15 years) and later (16-18 years) adolescence, early and late maturer.

Characteristics: Cognitive Development : Transition from concrete to formal operations.

Physical Development : Growth spurt, sexual development; Social and Emotional development; importance of peer group, interest in the opposite sex, varied and changing interest, concern about future; adolescence a period of strain and stress.

Important Developmental Tasks: accepting one’s physique; achieving new and more matured relations with age mates of both sexes; achieving a masculine/feminine social gender role; achieving emotional independence from parents; preparing for career; reproductive health and prevention of anemia.

Individual Differences: Difference between same sex, differences across the two sexes, early and late maturer, role of heredity and environment (family, peers, school and neighbourhood)

Interpersonal Skills : with the family, peers and members of the community.

Special needs of adolescents – (i) Nutrition requirements : qualitative and quantitative; (ii) exercises and entertainment; importance of physical activity in social development and prevention of obesity (iii) understanding from parents.

Some problems of adolescence : awkwardness due to growth spurt; freedom and control;depression; alcohol, drugs and smoking; delinquency; problem related to sex; ignorance and increased curiosity; prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Population Education : Some problems of over population; neglect of girl child : causes, prevention, legal and social laws, government incentives to improve status of girl child, desire for male child; small family norms.

Unit III: Nutrition for Self and Family (Periods-45)
Definition and relationship between food, nutrition, health : nutritional status; classification of foods on the basis of nutrients and functions; nutritional status and calorie intake as a basis of poverty line.

Functions of food : body building, energy giving, protective, regulatory; physiological psychological and socio-cultural; signs of good health; physical status, psychological status mental ability, mortality and longevity.

Selection of foods for optimum nutrition and good health: basic knowledge of nutrients – sources, functions, deficiency and prevention; proteins, carbohydrates, fat, dietary fibre, vitamins – A, D. B I, B 2, niacin, folic acid, B 12 and vitamin C; minerals-calcium, iron and iodine. Basic food groups (ICMR) and their contribution; concept of balanced diet; food and nutrition requirements for family (ICMR tables); factors influencing selection of food : cultural, family food practices, media, peer group and availability of foods.

Maximum nutritive value from food by proper selection, preparation, cooking and storage : Enhancing nutritive value of foods; Selection and storage of foods-perishable, semi-perishable non-perishable; convenience foods; Reasons for spoilage; brief description of household methods of preservation-refrigeration, dehydration, use of chemicals and household preservative. Preparation of food; loss of nutrients during preparation of food and their minimization; Cooking; principles of cooking; Methods of cooking boiling, steaming, pressure cooking, deep and shallow frying, parboiling, sauteing, roasting and grilling; Effect of cooking on the nutritive value of food; Method of enhancing nutritive value-germination, fermentation, fortification and proper food combination.

Unit-IV: My Resources (Periods-36)
Resources: meaning, types:

(i) Human-knowledge, skills, time, energy, attitudes

(ii) Material: money, goods, property

(iii) Community facilities, schools, parks, hospitals, roads, transport, water, electricity, fuel, fodder; need to manage the resources ; methods of conservation of shared resources.

Management: Meaning and need for management; steps in management ; planning, organizing, controlling, implementing and evaluation; decision making and its role in management.

Time and energy management: need and procedure for managing time for occupation and leisure; work simplification : meaning and methods;activities in the home: sleeping, studying, cooking, eating, bathing, washing, entertaining-need to organize space for these activities; use of colours and accessories to make these centres attractive; role of different members of the family in efficient running of a home.

Work ethics: meaning and importance; discipline at work place; reaching on time, staying in seat, knowing the job, using polite language.

Unit V : My Apparel (Periods 34)
Fibre Science : Types of fibres:
(i) Natural-cotton, silk and wool
(ii) Man- Made pure Rayon, nylon and polyester) and blend (terrycot, terrysilk, terrywool)

Fabric Construction : Basic procedure of any yarn making (spinning, mechanical spinning, chemical spinning, weaving : plain, twill & satin, other methods- knitting and non-woven effect of weaves on appearance, durability and maintenance of garment.

Finishing : meaning and importance
Types:

1. Basic : cleaning, bleaching, stiffening, tantering

2. Special: mercerisation, shrinkage control, water proofing; dyeing and printing.

Practical

Unit I : Concept of Home Science (Periods 2)

Unit II : Know Myself : Issues Related to Adolescents (Periods 8)
Activity : Observe and test your own strengths and weaknesses ; Discuss about them in class with your teacher and fellow students; take decision about maximum utilization of strength and improvement upon weaknesses.

Activity : Report situations from your life to indicate your interaction within the family with peers and with members of the community.

Unit III : Nutrition For Self and Family (Periods 28)
Activity : Look for signs of good health within your family.

Activity : Make a list of foods available in the local market according to food groups.

Activity : Observe how different food stuffs are stored at home and evaluate the effectiveness of the method; practice skills to preserve and optimise nutrients by preparing meals and snacks.

Practical : Preparing meals and snacks

Practical : Household methods of food preservation-Jam,Squash/Syrup Pickles/Chutney.

Unit-IV : My Resources (Periods 30)
Activity (Observation) : Observe and list resources available at home and in neighbourhood. Make a detailed study on available community resource and its management, suggest improvements.

Activity: Critically evaluate anyone activity center of your house. Suggest improvements

Activity : Suggest a work plan for yourself for a day and state where and why will you take help from others.

Practicals : Make flower and foliage arrangements, floor decorations, clean and polish brass, glass, iron, aluminum and plastic surfaces.

Unit-V : My Apparel (Periods 24)
Activity : Collect samples of fabrics and study characteristics for identification.

Activity :Collect samples of weaves and identify them.

Practicals : Carry out burning test, slippage test, tearing test and test for colour fastness.

Practical : Dyeing : plain and tie dye printing : use blocks (available or make you own) on small sample.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Public Administration

Introduction to Public Administration.

Unit I Public Administration:
Meaning, Scope, Significance and relationship with Political Science, History, Economics and Sociology, Differences and Similarly between Public Administration and Private Administration.

Unit II Organization:
Meaning, Principles (Hierarchy, Unity of command and span of control) and its kinds i.e. Formal and informal, Singular and Plural (Bureau and Board).

Unit III Bureaucracy :
Meaning, Characteristics, Functions, evils and remedies of civil services.

Unit IV Recruitment :
Meaning, methods of recruitment (within and without) Qualifications of employees and examinations for determining the qualifications.

Unit V Training and Promotion:
Training: Meaning, Kinds, Methods and Significance; Promotion: Meaning, basis of promotion (Merit and Seniority) and significance.

Unit VI Conduct and Discipline :
Rules of Conduct for employees, types of disciplinary action (Formal and informal) procedure of taking disciplinary action.

Unit VII Salary, Morale and Retirement :
Determinants of Salary, meaning of morale and factors leading to High morale, Meaning and main features of retirement system.

Unit VIII Management :
Management :- Meaning, nature and functions of Management.
Process :- Communication, Leadership and decision making.

Unit IX Field Administration :
Types of field establishments, methods of creating harmony between Headquarters and field. Establishments, Methods of control over field establishment.

Unit X Public Relations:
Meaning, Functions, Media, obstacles and Significance.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Philosophy

Theory

Unit 1 : Methods of Natural and Social Sciences (Periods 20)
Value of Science , Nature and aim of Scientific Methods : Difference between Scientific Induction and induction by simple enumeration. Difference between methods of Natural Sciences and Social Sciences.

Unit 2 : Observation and Experiment (Periods 20)
Their Differences, fallacies of observation.

Unit 3: Science and Hypothesis (Periods 25)
The place of hypothesis in scientific methods . Formulation of relevant hypothesis . Formal conditions of valid hypothesis . Hypothesis and crucial experiments.

Unit 4 : Mill’s Methods of Experimental Inquiry (Periods 25)
The method of agreement;
The method of difference
The Joint method of agreement and difference;
The method of concomitant variation;
The method of residue

Unit 5 : Nyaya Theory of Knowledge (Periods 30)
General Survey – Prama, Pramana, Pramanya, Pratyaksa, Anumana, Upamana Sabda.

Logic

Unit 6 : The Nature and scope of logic (Periods 14)
What is Logic ? Use and application of Logic. Difference between Truth and Validity.

Unit 7 : Terms and Propositions (Periods 30)
Definition of Term; Denotation and Connotation of Terms .
Definitions of proposition and traditional classification of Propositions.
Distribution of Terms.

Relation between Propositions (Periods 12)
Traditional Square of Propositions

Unit 8 : Categorical Syllogism (Periods 24)
Its definition : Rules of valid syllogism and Fallacies.

Unit 9 : Elements of Symbolic Logic (Periods 14)
Value of using symbols in Logic
Basic Truth-Tables

Unit 10 : Buddhist Formal Logic (Periods 26)

Suggested Reference

1. Bhola Nath Roy – Text-book of Inductive Logic
2. Bhola Nath Roy – Text-book of deductive Logic
3. I.M. Copi – Introduction to Logic
4. S.C. Chatterjee – Nyaya Theory of Knowledge
5. S.R. Bhatt and Anu Melhotra – Buddhist Epistamology
6. Chatterjee and Dutta – Indian Philosophy

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Informatics Practices

Unit I : Computer System and Business Applications

Evolution of computers; Basics of computer and its operation: Functional Components and their inter-connections, concept of Booting; Hardware concepts; Diagram illustrating main parts of computers;

Central Processing Unit (CPU) : Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit, Memory Unit (RAM-Random Access Memory & ROM – Read Only Memory) Role of Input, Processing and Output Devices in a computer system.

Input devices : Keyboard, Mouse, Light pen, Touch Screens, Graphics Tablets, Joystick, Mic, MICR, OCR, Scanner, Smart Card reader, Bar code reader, Biometric sensor, web camera, digital camera;

Output Devices : Monitor/Visual Display Unit (VDU), Printer (Dot Matrix Printer, Desk jet/Ink Jet/ Bubble Jet Printer, Laser Printer), Plotter, Speaker).

Secondary Storage Devices : Floppy Disk, Hard Disk, Compact Disk, Magnetic Tape, Digital Video Disk (DVD), Zip Drive; Units of Memory: Bit (Binary Digit), Byte, Kilobyte), Megabyte, Gigabyte.

Software Concepts :
Types of Software : System Software, Utility Software and Application Software.

System Software : Operating System, Language Compilers, Interpreters and Assembler

Operating System : Need of operating systems, Functions of Operating System Types of operating system.

Utility Software : Compression tools, Anti Virus, File Management tools and Disk Management ;

Application Software as a tool : Word Processor, Presentation Tool, Spreadsheet Package, Database Management System; Business software (for example: Inventory Management System, Payroll System, Financial Accounting, Hotel Management, and Reservation System); Development of programming languages – Machine Language, Assembly Language, High Level Language (BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C++); GUI based language – Visual Basic Visual C++; C#, Java, vb.net.

GUI Operating System:
Important : Students/Teachers can also perform similar operation on any operating system. It is advised that the teacher while using any one operating system, give a demonstration of equivalent features for the other operating system.

Windows: General features, Elements of Desktop – Taskbar, Icon, Start button, Shortcuts, Folder, Recycle Bin, My Computer.

Start Menu : Program, Documents, Settings, Find/Search, Help, Run, Shut Down/Log off; Customization of Taskbar, start menu, Display properties (Wallpaper, Font Settings, Colour Settings, Screen Savers);

Program Menu : Accessories – Calculator, Notepad, Paint, Word Pad, Entertainments (CD Player, Sound Recorder, Media Player, Volume (Controller); Internet Browsers – Mozila Firefox, internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator.

Control Panel : Add new hardware; Add new Software, Printer Installation, Date/Time, Mouse, and Regional Settings

Documentation:
Purpose of using word processing software, opening a new/existing document, closing a document, typing in a document, saving a document, print preview, printing a document, setting up of page as per the specifications, selecting a portion of document, copying selected text, cutting selected text, pasting selected text; changing font, size, style, colour of text; Inserting symbol; Formatting: Alignment – Left, Right, Center; Justification : Industries and Business Computing : Types of Industries (Production, Shipping, Travel, Hotel, Insurance, Construction, Automobile), Applications of Business Computing in Industries.

Unit 2 : Introduction to Programming

Programming Methodology :
General Concepts; Modular approach; Stylistic Guidelines: Clarity and Simplicity of Expressions, Names, Comments, Indentation; Documentation and Program Maintenance; Running and Debugging programs, Syntax Errors, Run-Time Errors, Logical Errors; Problem Solving Methodology and Techniques: Understanding of the problem, Identifying minimum number of inputs required for output, Step by step solution for the problem, breaking down solution into simple steps, Identification of arithmetic and logical operations required for solution, Using Control Structure: Conditional control and looping (finite and infinite).

Programming Tool : Visual Basic

Introduction to Programming – Modular Programming, Object Oriented Programming, Event Driven Programming.
About Visual Basic (Object Based Programming Language), Rapid Application Development using Visual Basic; Concept of Project in Visual Basic, VB Project Options – Standard EXE, Active X DLL, Active X EXE, Active X Control, Active X Document DLL, Active X Document EXE, Addin, VB Application Wizard, IIS Application, DHTML Application.

Getting Familiar with Visual Basic User Interface-Pull-Down menus, Toolbar, Toolbox, Project Explorer, Properties Window, Form Layout window, Form, Immediate window;Opening and Closing windows, Resizing and moving windows, Docking windows; Quitting Visual Basic.

Visual Basic Tool Box (Standard Window Controls) – Pointer, Picture Box, Label, Text Box, Frame, Command Button, Check Box, Option Button, Combo Box, List Box, Horizontal Scroll bar, Vertical Scroll bar, Timer, Drive List box,Directory List box, File List box, Shape, Line, Image, Data, OLE; Object Naming Conventions, Event Procedures.

Programming Fundamentals:

Data Types : Integer, Long, Single, Double, Currency, String, Byte, Boolean, Data, Object, Variant;

Variables : Need to use variable, Declaring Variables, Variable Naming Convention, Assigning value to variables, Data Types of variable, Scope and lifetime of Variables (Public and Private);

Control Structures :

Decision Structure – IF, IF- THEN-ELSE, Select Case

Looping Structure – Do While ……Loop, Do ……Loop While, For….. Next, For each ……. Next;

General Controls (Advance) : Image List, Common Dialog Box, ADO DC, DB Combo, Media Player Control, DB Grid; Adding a Toolbar; Creating an Image List, Adding Images to the Toolbar, To Add Code for the Toolbar Buttons.
Adding Status Bar: Adding Status Bar panels, Adding Time on the panel.
Dialog Boxes : Pre-defined dialog box, Custom dialog box.

Unit 3 : Relational Database Management System

Database Management System:
Introduction to database concepts : Relation/Table, attribute, Tuple/ Rows, field, Data, Concept of String, Number and Data values, Data type and Data Integrity (Domain and Referential Integrity). Candidate key, Alternate Key, Primary Key, Foreign Keys; Data Normalization-first, second, third, BCNF normal form;
Examples of Commercially available Database Management System’s (Back-End) – Oracle, MS-SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, Sybase, INGRES.
Examples of Front End Software’s : Oracle Developer, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Power Builder, Delphi.

RDBMS Tool:
Interface with oracle, Login Screen, Entering Name and Password; Classification of SQL Statements : DML (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE), DDL (CREATE, DROP, ALTER, RENAME, TRUNCATE), DCL (GRANT, REVOKE), TCL (COMMIT, ROLLBACK); SQL SELECT Statement : SQL SELECT statement, Selecting All the Columns, Selecting Specific Column, Column Heading Default, Using Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, Significance of NULL value, NULL values in Arithmetic Expressions, Defining and using Column Alias, Concatenation Operation (||), Duplicate rows and their Elimination (DISTINCT keyword), Role of SQL and SQL* Plus in interacting with RDBMS, Displaying Table Structure (DESC command).

SELECT Statement Continued: Limiting Rows during selection (using WHERE clause), Working with Character Strings and Dates, Using Comparison operators, BETWEEN Operators, IN Operator, LIKE Operator, IS NULL Comparison, Logical Operators, Use of Logical Operators (AND/OR/ NOT Operators), Logical Operator Precedence, ORDER BY Clause, Sorting in Ascending/Descending Order, Sorting By Column Alias Name, Sorting On Multiple Columns.

Functions : SQL Functions, Types of SQL Function (Single Row/Multiple Row), Single Row SQL Functions, Character Functions (Case Conversion/ Character Manipulation), Case Conversion Functions (lower (), InitCap (), UPPER () Character Manipulation Function (CONCAT(), INSTR(), LENGTH(), TRIM(), SUBSTR(), LPAD()), Number Functions (ROUND(), TRUNC(), MOD()), Working with Dates (LAST_DAY(), MONTHS_BETWEEN(), NEXT_DAY(), ADD_MONTHS(), ROUND(), TRUNC()) Arithmetic Operation on Dates, Date Functions and their Usage, Data type Conversion Functions, Implicit and Explicit Conversion, TO_CHAR Function with Dates, TO_CHAR Function for Numbers. TO_NUMBER and TO_DATE Functions, NVL Function and its Usage, DECODE Function and its Usage.

Grouping Records : Concept of Grouping Records and Nested Grouping, Nested Grouping of records, Group Functions, Types of group functions (MAX(), MIN(), AVG(), SUM(), COUNT()), Using AVG and Sum Functions, Using MIN and MAX Functions, Using the COUNT Function, using

COUNT(*), DISTINCT clause with COUNT, Group Functions and Null Values, Using NVL Function with Group Functions, Grouping Records; Group by Clause, Grouping By More than One Column, Illegal Queries with Group By Clause, Excluding Group Results: Having Clause, Nesting Group Functions.

Sub Queries : Concept of Sub-Query, Sub Query to Solve a Problem, Guidelines for Using Sub Queries, Types of Sub-Queries (Single Row and Multiple Row) and (Single Column and Multiple Column); Single Row Sub- Query and its Execution.

Displaying Data From Multiple Tables : Concept of Join, Result of Join, Cartesian Product and Generating Cartesian Product example using Mathematical Set), Types of joins (EQUI, SELF, NON-EQUI, OUTER (LEFT and RIGHT)), Equi-join : Retrieving Records with Equi-join, Additional Search

Conditions using AND operator, Short Naming Convention for Tables (Table Aliases), Non-Equi join and its Implementation, Out-Joint and Its Usage, Self- Joint (Joining a table to itself).

Manipulating Data of A Table/Relation; Concept of DML (Data Manipulation Language), INSERT Statement, Inserting New Rows, Inserting New Rows with Null Values, Inserting Date Values, Use of Substitution Variable to Insert Values, Copying Rows From Another Table, Update Statement to Change Existing Data of a Table, Updating Rows In A Table, Updating Rows Based on Another Table, Delete statement/Removing Row/ Rows from a Table, Deleting Rows Based on condition from another Table. Making Data Manipulation Permanent (COMMIT). Undo Data Manipulation Changes (ROLLBACK).

Database Objects : View, Table, Sequence, index, and Synonyms, DLL (Data Definition Language), Naming Convention, Creating Views, Creating Synonyms, Simple Views and Complex Views, Retrieving Data From a View, Querying a View, Modifying a View.

Including Constraints : Constraints, Concept of using Constraints, Constraint Guidelines, Defining Constraints, NOT NULL, UNIQUE KEY, PRIMARY KEY, FOREIGN KEY, FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords, CHECK, Adding a Constraint, Dropping a Constraint, Disabling Constraints, Enabling Constraints, Viewing Constraints, Viewing The Columns, Associated with Constraints.

Creation of a Table/Relation; CREATE TABLE Statement, Data types, The DEFAULT option, Creating Tables. Referencing Another User’s Tables, Querying the Database Dictionary to view all tables in the Oracle Database, Creating a Table by using a Sub-Query.

Managing Existing Tables and other Database Objects : The ALTER TABLE Statement, Adding a New Column in a Table. Modifying Existing Column, Dropping a Column, Renaming an Object, Truncating a Table, Adding Comments to a Table, Dropping Views, Dropping Synonyms, Droping Tables; giving permission to other users to work on Created Tables and Revoking it (GRANT and REVOKE statement).

Informatics Practices
(Practical)
Time: 3 hrs
Total Marks: 30

1. Hands on Experience
A problem should be given covering the following:

• Table definition (The table must include constraints).

• A form with Lable, Text, Command Button control, List Box, Drive List Box, Directory List Box, File List Box, Tool and Menu Bar (Any 4) DSN to access tables in the database.

• For data connectivity (Activex Database Control).

• Change of Text Box Control Properties to view Database fields.

2. Practical File
The practical file should contain print outs from each of the following topics.

1. Create an application using Visual Basic with a Text Box control to accept a name from the user and print “Hello <Name>” in a message box. e.g. when user types his name as “Kamal Kant” in the text box and clicks OK button, a message “Hellow Kamal Kant should be displayed and if he clicks on Cancel button a message as “Bye Kamal Kant” should appear.
2. Create an Application having two Text Boxes on the Window. Get Title, First Name and Last Name on its. On clicking Ok button a message should appear by joining Title + First Name + Last Name. e.g. if user enters Prof. in Title, Rajyash in First Name, and Swami as Last Name then the message to be printed should be “Happy Deepawali Prof. Rajyash Swami.”
3. Create an application to let user guess any number and click a Play button given on the form. On clicking the Play button the application will generate a random number. If the generated number is same as guessed by the user then display a message “You Win” otherwise display a message “You Loose”.
4. Create an application to Display Image files kept in different folders in the system. The application should allow the user to navigate in the folders and list all Image Files (*.BMP, * JPG) when ever a image file is selected it should get that picture displayed in an Image control.
5. Create an application having menu bar and tool bar to create a text file, navigate and open text files, edit text file and save changes made by the user.
6. Create a small application working as a general purpose calculator. (+, –, ´, ¸).
7. SQL assignments (based on Demo Tables present in the ORACLE database for example Emp table, Dept table and SalGrade table);
• Display all the records (all columns) from table Emp.

• Display EmpNo and EName of all employees from table Emp.

• Display Ename, Sal and Sal added with Comm from table Emp.

• Display EName joined with Job with heading “Employee”, Sal*12 as “Total Salary” from table Emp.

• Display distinct Sal of employees from table Emp.

• Show the Structure of table Dept.

• Write a Query to display EName and Sal of Employees whose salary is greater than or equal to 3000 from table Emp.

• Write a Query to display employee Number, name, sal and sal* 12 as Annual Salary whose commission is no NULL from table Emp.

• Write a Query to display employee name and salary of those employee who don’t have there salary in the range of 1500 to 2000.

• Write a Query to display name, job, salary, and Hire Date of employees who are hired between February 20, 1981, and May 1, 1981, Order the query in ascending order of Hire Date.

• Write a Query to display the name and hire data of all employees who were hired in 1982.

• Write a Query to display the name, job title and salary of employee who do not have manager.

• Write a Query to display the name of employee whose name contains ‘A’ as third alphabet.

• Write a Query to display the name of employee whose name contains ‘T’ as the last alphabet.

• Write a Query to display the name of employee whose name contains ‘M’ as first alphabet ‘L’ as third alphabet.

• Write a Query to display the name of employee who is having ‘L’ as any alphabet of the name.

• Write a query to display the current system date.

• Write a Query to display employee number, name, salary, salary increase by 15% expressed as a whole number. Label the column as New Salary.

• Write a Query to display the employee’s name and salary review date, which is the date after six months of Hire Date.

• Write a Query to display the employee’s name and salary review date, which is the date after six months of HireDate in format of ‘Sunday, 7 SEP, 1981’.

• For each employee display employee name and total number of weeks lapsed between HireDate and Today.

• For each employee display employee name and total number of days lapsed between HireDate and Today.

• Create a query that produces display in the following format– <employee name> Earns \$<salary> Monthly and working as <Job>.

• Write a query which displays the employee name with the first letter capitalized and all other letters lower case and length of their name string.

• Write a Query to display the employee name and commission amount. If the employee does not earn commission, put “No Commission”.

• Write a query to display the grade of all employees based on the value of the column job as per following scheme :

 Job Grade President A Manager B Analyst C Salesman D Clerk E None of the above O
• Write a query to display the EName and DeptNo and DName for all employees using tables Emp and Dept.
• Write a Query to display employee name, department name and location of all employees who have manager number between 7500 and 7900.
• Write a Query to display the employee name, department number and all the employees that worked in the same department as the given employee.
• Write a Query to display employee name and HireDate of employees who are employed after Employee ‘BLAKE’.
• Write Query to display employee number, name and manager’s name with their manager number.
• Write a Query to Display the Sum, Average, Highest and Lowest salary of the employees.
• Write a Query to Display the Sum, Average, Highest and Lowest Salary of the employees grouped by department number.
• Write a Query to Display the Sum, Average, Highest and Lowest salary of the employees grouped by department number and sub-grouped by job.
• Write a query to display the number of employee with same job.
• Write a query to display the average of Highest and lowest salary of each department.
• Write a query to display the difference of Highest and lowest salary of each department having maximum salary > 4000.
• Write a query to display the employee name and job for all employee in the same department as ‘ALLEN’. Write a query to display employee name and salary of those who either work in department 10 or have salary greater than employee 7521.Before the following exercise please ensure that you are provided with a table Employee with following description.Table: Employee
 Name of Column Type ID NUMBER (4) First_Name VARCHAR 2 (30) Last_Name VARCHAR 2 (30) User_ID VARCHAR 2 (10) Salary NUMBER (9, 2)

1. Use DESCRIBE command to ensure the table structure.
2. Add the following data in the above Table as instructed.

 ID First_Name Last_Name User_ID Salary 1 Dim Joseph Jdim 5000 2 Jagannath Mishra Jnmishra 4000 3 Siddharth Mishra Smishra 8000 4 Shankar Giri Sgiri 7000 5 Gautam Buddha Bgautam 2000
• Populate table with first record mentioning the column list in the insert clause.
• Populate table with next two records without mentioning the column list in the insert clause.
• Populate table with 4th record and enter only ID and First_Name.
• Populate table with 5th record and enter ID, User_ID, and Last_Name only,.
• For record with ID = 4 update record with Last_Name User_ID and Salary.
• For record with ID = 5 update records with First_Name and Salary.
• Make the changes permanent.
• Modify the Last_Name, of the employee 3, to Gautam.
• Modify the Salary and increase it by 1000, for all who get salary less then 5000.
• Delete the employee record having First_Name as Siddharth.
• Make the changes permanent.
• Remove the entire contents of the table.
• Undo the above step.
• Create a table Employee1 with columns ID, First_Name and Dept_ID from table Employee and also confirm the existence of table Employee1.
• Create a view VU_Emp1 which should include column EmpNo. Ename and DeptNo. from the table Emp.
• Create a view VU_Emp2 which should include column EmpNo, Ename and Dept No. from the table Emp and change the column headings as Emp Number, Employee, Department.
• Select VIEW-NAME and TEXT from the data dictionary USER_VIEWS.
• Create the table Department table based on the following table instance chart.
 Column Name ID Name Data Type NUMBER VARCHAR 2 Length 8 25
• Populate the table Department with data from table dept. Including only required columns.
• Create the table Employee based on the following table instance chart.
 Column Name ID First_Name Last_Name Dept_ID Data Type NUMBER VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 NUMBER Length 8 25 25 8

1. Rename table Employee1 to Employee2.
2. Drop table Employee2.
3. Drop table Employee and Department.
4. Create table Customer as per following Table Instance Chart.

 Column Name Cust_ID Cust_Name Cust_Address1 Cust_Address2 Pincode Cust_Phone Key Type Nulls/Unique FK Table FK Column Datatype NUMBER VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 NUMBER VARCHAR2 Length 7 30 20 30 6 10
• Add one column Email of data type VARCHAR2 and size 30 to the table Customer.
• Change the data type of column pin code to VARCHAR2(10) in the table Customer.
• Add one more column Customer Income Group of data type VARCHAR2(10).
• Insert few records with relevant information, in the table.
• Drop the column Customer Income Group from table Customer.
• Create table Department as per following Table Instance Chart.
 Column Name DeptID DeptName DeptLocation Key Type Primary Nulls/Unique NOT NULL FK Table FK Column Datatype NUMBER VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 Length 2 20 20

Create table Employee as per following Table Instance Chart.

 Column Name EmpID EmpName EmpAddress EmpPhone EmpSal DeptID Key Type Primary Foreign Nulls/Unique NOT NULL FK Table FK Column Data type NUMBER VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 VARCHAR2 NUMBER VARCHAR2 Length 6 20 30 10 9,2 2
• Create table Employee1 as per the above Table Instance Chart but now use table level primary key addition method.
• Create table Employee2 as per the above Table Instance Chart without any constraint while table creation.
• Add a PRIMARY KEY constraint to the table Employee2 using the EmpID column.
• Add a FOREIGN KEY reference on the Employee2 table that will ensure that employee records with non-existent departments are to be prohibited.
• Confirm that constraints were added by querying Constraint_Name and Constraint from USER_CONSTRAINTS relation.
• Add a NOT NULL constraint to the table Employee2 on column EmpName.
• Add a CHECK constraint to ensure, at the time of record insertion, that employee records with salary less than 2000 are to be prohibited.Disable NOT NULL Constraint on the column EmpName from the table Employee2.Drop UNIQUE constraint from the column DeptName in table Department.
• Create an application to list all the contents of a database table using a data control object in visual basic.
• Create an Application in Visual basic having Menu Bar, Tool Bar and other controls to View, Add and Modify records present in the Database Tables.

3. Project–05

The following case study is to be used to develop a team project.,

A cable company in Delhi is working since 1998. They have about 2 Lac customers in different zones (North, South, East and West). Company wants to computerize its working, which involves Customer Registration, Customer Billing and Bill Collection on monthly basis.

Develop a Database Handling Software for the company. The software should have option to enter customer data and information of bill collection.
The data entry form should also have option to navigate through the records.

The software should allow to store following information of customer and billing (Normalize this to store data in tabular form)
Customer Name
Customer City
Customer Zone
Customer Pin Code
Customer Phone
Customer Interest (Movies, Games etc.)
Customer Monthly Income
Customer Monthly Installment
Customer Joining Date
Bill Cycle
Bill Collection Date
(Suitable assumptions can be made)

The user interfaces should be designed in visual basic and must be user friendly with correct tab order.

Note :— Similar type of cases can also be encouraged, provided it should include almost every aspect of course undertaken.

4. Viva-Voce

Five questions from topics covered in the curriculum.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Physical Education

Theory

Part – A (28 Marks)

1. Concept of Physical Education
1.1 Meaning and definition of Physical Education-its aim and objectives.
1.2 Modern Concept and scope of Physical Education.
1.3 Need and importance of Physical Education.
1.4 Misconceptions about Physical Education.
1.5 Place of Physical Education in the total education process.

2. Physiological Aspects of Physical Education
Effect of Exercise on :
2.1 Muscular System.
2.2. Circulatory System.
2.3 Respiratory System.
2.4 Digestive System

3. Psychological Aspects of Physical Education
3.1 Definition of Psychology and Sports Psychology
3.2 Achievement and Motivation in Sports
3.3. Sportsmanship and Sports Ethics

Part-B (14 Marks)

1. History of the game/sport (Any one game/sport of student’s choice).
2. Latest general rules of the game/sport (Any one game /sport of student’s choice).
3. Measurement of play fields and specifications of sports equipment.
4. Fundamental skills of the game/sport.
5. Related sports technologies.
6. Important tournaments and venues.
7. Sports personalities.
8. Sports Awards

Part – C (28 Marks)

1. Health Education
1.1 Concept and objectives of Health Education.
1.2 Importance of Health Education.
1.3 Principles of Health Education.
1.4 Importance of community participation for health promotion and welfare of individual, family and community.

2. Communicable Diseases.
2.1 Meaning of Communicable Diseases
2.2 Essential conditions for Communicable Diseases to occur and disease process.
2.3. Common alert signals indicating on set of Communicable Diseases.
2.4 Mode of transmission, common symptoms and prevention of spread (transmission) of :
AIDS, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.
Rabies
Tetanus
Malaria
Tuberculoses

3. Contemporary Health Problems
3.1 Abuse of alcohol, tobacco and drugs and the effect of abuse on individual, family and community.
3.2. Effect of alcohol, tobacco and drugs on sportsperson.
3.3 Eating habits that cause obesity and its effect on health on individual.

Practical
(30 marks)

The activity syllabus has been divided into following three parts. The marks of each part are as follows:
Part – A Track and Field (Two events) — 10 marks
Part – B Games and Sports (One game) — 06 marks
Part – C Achievement in Sports — 10 marks
Part – D Practical Note Book (Class Record) — 04 Marks

Part- A

Track and Field

Any two events may be opted. Each event will carry 5 marks out of which 2 marks are for viva concerning athletics event selected by the candidate.
1. Sprints 100 meters or 200 meters or 400 meters.
2. Middle and Long distance running 800 meters or 1500* meters or 3000* meters.
4. Tripple Jump*.
5. High Jump.
6. Shot Put.
7. Discuss Throw.
8. Javelin Throw.
*denotes ‘for boys only’

Part-B

Games and Sports

One game either from Group A or Group B may be opted. Each game will carry 5 marks out of which 2 marks will be for proficiency in the game and skills of the game.

 Group A Group B Hockey Badminton Football* Wrestling* Volley Ball Table Tennis Basket Ball Boxing* Kabaddi Rhythmic (Folk Dance, Drill & Marching) Kho-Kho Hand Ball *denotes ‘for boys only’

Part-C

Achievement in Sports
(Earmarking of marks is shown against each)

Upto :-
1. School level participation 4
2. Zonal level participation 5
3. District level participation 7
4. State level participation 9
5. National level participation 10

Part- D

Practical Note Book 04 Marks

The Practical Note Book will carry class record Or sessional work

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Yoga

Yoga

Yoga Education Syllabus consists of two parts:

1. Theory- 3 hrs. (70 Marks)

2. Practical – 3 hrs. (30 Marks)

Theory
The theory paper will be divided into two parts and will be of 3 hours duration having 35 marks in each part.

Part-A
(Historical and Philosophical Aspects of Yoga)

1. Definition of Yoga both in its literal and broader sense as clarified in Patanjali yogsutras and other yogic texts.
2. Aims and objectives of yoga, its importance in present modern world.
3. Different aspects of yoga namely; Karamyoga. Bhaktiyoga, Gyanyoga and Rajyoga.
4. Detailed study of Ashtanga yoga as defined in Patanjali Yogdarshan.
5. Yogic concept of Chitta, its varieties and the method of their control.

Part-B
(Therapeutic and Physiological Aspects of Yoga)

6. Meaning of Asana as defined in yogic texts and benefits of performing yogasanas.
7. Scope of yoga education and its limitations.
8. Physiological basis of Shatkarmas, benefits of doing these purificatory techniques and various methods of doing Shatkarmas.
9. Yoga therapy its importance and limitations.
Treatment of common diseases such as fatigue, Headache, Common Cold, Gastric Acidity, Hypertension, Indigestion and loss of appetite, Hair loss, Weakness of eyesight-their symptoms, causes and treatment through yogic therapeutic measures.

Practical

(i) Asanas as given in Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Ghrenda Samhita, Shiva Samhita, yogapanishads and other in vouge.
(ii) Kriyas-Shatkaramas (Shatkriyas) as described in Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Ghrenda Samhita and Shatkarama Sangraha.
(iii) Pranayamas – Anuloma-Viloma, Ujjai, Bhastrika and familiarity with other Pranayamas such as Surayabhedana- Chandrabhedana, Sitli- Shitkari, Bhastrika, Bharamari and Plavani.
(iv) Bandhas-Jalandhar, Uddiyana, Mula and Mahabandha.

(v) Meditation-Elementary practice of Meditation, Chanting of “OM” and the practice of dhayana in any of the selected postures i.e. Sidhasna. Swastikasana Padmasana, Sukhasana and Vajarasana.
(vi) Practical Notebook to be prepared by the students illustrating any nine asanas of their choice, any two kriyas any two body systems out of the following i.e. Skeltal, circulatory, Digestive, Human brain and Spinal cord.

List of Yogic Asanas Required to be Performed by the Students Is As Under :

Standing Postures: Tarasana, Trikonasana, Konasana, Padahastasana Garudasana Ardha-Chandrasana, Khagasana Birbhadrasana Shirshangusthasana.

Lying Postures: Shavasana, Halasana, Uttanapadasana, Matasyasana, Karanpidasana, Makrasana, Bhujangasana, Dhanurasana, Shalabhasana, Naukasana, Mayurasana, Shirshasana, Sarvangasana, Chakrasana, Gharabhasana, Pawanmuktasana.

References:
1. Patanjal yogsutras
2. Rajayoga by Swami Vivekananda
3. Asanas by Swami Kuvalayananda.
4. Pranayama by Swami Kuvalayananda.
6. Gherandasamhita.
7. Suksham vyama by Swami Dharendra Braham Chari.
8. Yoga Therapy by Swami Kuvalayananda and Dr. S.L. Vinkar.
9. Applied Physiology by S.N. Dasgupta.
10. Yoga Philosophy by S.N. Dasgupta.
11. Yog Chakitsa by Swami Ram Dev.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Music (Hindustani Vocal)

(A) Hindustani (Vocal)

I. Theory
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 30

1. Definition of the following :—
Nad, Shruti, Svara, Raga, Mela (Thata) Classification of ragas, Anibadha-Nibadha-gana.

2. Description of the ragas prescribed for Class XI.

3. Contribution and short life sketch of Tansen, Sadaranga Pt. Bhartkhande and Pt. Vishnu Digamber Paluskar.

4. Brief history of Dhrupada and Khyal.

5. Writing in Notation of songs and Taals prescribed for Class XI.

II. Practical Paper
Maximum Marks: 70

1. (a) One Drut Khayal with simple elaborations in the following ragas :
Alhaiyya—Bilawal, Durga, Jounpuri, Malkauns.

(b) One Dhurapat, One Swarmalika and one Lakshan geet in any of the prescribed Ragas.

(c) One composition in the Raga Kaafi.

2. The recitation of the Thekas of Ektala and Chautala with Dugan keeping Taal with hand beats.

3. Ability to sing Aaroha, Avaroha, Pakar and simple Svara Vistar with Alap and Tal in the prescribed ragas.

4. Ability to recognise the prescribed Ragas from the passages of Swaras rendered by the examiner.

(B) Hindustani (Instrumental Melodic)

I. Theory
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 30

1. Definition of the following :—
Nad, Shruti, Svara, Raga, Mela (Thata) Classification of ragas, Anibadha-Nibadha-gana.

2. Description of the ragas prescribed for Class XI.

3. Contribution and short life sketch of Tansen, Sadaranga Pt. Bhartkhande and Pt. Vishnu Digamber Paluskar.

4. Brief history of Dhrupada and Khayal

5. Writing in Notation of songs and Taals prescribed for Class XI.

II. Practical Activities

1. (a) One Razakhani gat with simple elaborations in Alhaiyya-Bilawal, Durga, Jounpuri, and
(b) One composition in Raga Kaafi.

2. Ability to play, Aaroha, Avaroha, Pakar, simple Swara—Vistars with Alap and Todas in the prescribed
ragas.

3. Ability to recite the Thekas of Ek Tala and Choutala with Dugun Keeping tala with hand beats.

4. Ability to recognise the prescribed ragas from the passages of Swaras song played by the examiner.

(C) Hindustani—(Instrumental Percussion)
(Tabla or Pakhawaj)

I. Theory
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 30

1. Definition of the following term :—

Nada, Shruti, Savara, Raga, Kayada, Mukhra, Mohra, Tihai, Paran, Anibadha and Nibhada gana, Laya (Vilambit, Madhya Draut), Layakari (Dugum, Teegun, Chaugum), Bole, Paduant, Gat.

2. Description of the talas prescribed for Class XI.

3. Contribution and life sketch of Taansen, Sadarang and Pt. Vishnu Digamber Paluskar.

4. Brief history of Dhrupad and Khayal.

5. Recognition of talas from given portion of the Thekas.

6. Writing of Notation of the prescribed talas in Tihai and dugun.

II. Practical Activities
Maximum Marks: 70

1. Playing of the Thekas Technical and Ektal with simple elaborations.
2. Playing of the Theka of the following talas on Tabla with Dugun and Chaugun :—
Teentaal and Ektal.
3. Simple Peshkars 2 Kaydas and a few Tukdras and in Teentaal and Ektal.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Dance

Dance

(A) Kathak Dance

I. Theory Paper
Time: 3hours
Maximum Marks: 30

1. A brief history of Indian dance and Indian Traditional Dance Drama.
2. Acquaintance with the themes of Ramayana, Mahabharta, Panchtantra, Bhagavata Purana and Geeta Govinda. Acquaintance with other myths & legends pertinent to the Dance and Dance forms.
3. A history of the Kathak Dance.
4. Acquaintance with its repertoire and literary contents.

II. One Practical Paper
Maximum Marks: 70

1. Practice of basic standing, sitting positions.
2. Practice of exercises different parts of the human body particularly head, neck, shoulders, arms, chest, waist, hips, thighs, knees, shanks, ankles, feet.
3. Practice of different movements of the eyes, hands and face.
4. Practice of Titkara to teentala in the following lays : Tthaat, Dugun.
5. The students should know the following composition:
(i) Tthaat
(iv) Vanda
(v) Tokra/Tora
(vi) Natwari Ka Tukra
(vii) Gatnikas
(viii) Gatbhav
(ix) Paran
(x) Tihayee
(xi) Lar/Laya Baant
(xii) Parhant of Tukra Toda, Paran learnt with Tala

(B) Bharatnatyam Dance

I. Theory Paper
Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 30

1. A brief history of Indian Dance and Indian Traditional Dance-Drama.
2. Acquaintance with the themes of Ramayana, Mahabharata, Panchatantra, Bhagavata Purana and Geeta Govinda. Acquaintance with other myths and legends pertinent to the Dance form.
3. A history of Bharatnatyam.
4. Acquaintance with its repertoire and literacy contents.

II. Practical Paper
Maximum Marks: 70

1. Practice of basic standing, sitting positions.
2. Practice of exercises of different parts of the human body particularly head, neck, shoulders, arms, chest, waist, hips, thighs, knees, shanks, ankles, feet.
3. Practice of different movement of the eyes, hands and face.
4. Aadvus in Trikala :
(iii) Te tei tei ta adavus
(iv) Kudittu mettu adavus
(v) Tei ya teiyi standing adavus
(vi) Tat tei to ha adavus
(vii) Tat tei tam adavus
(viii) Kattia adavu and allied utplavana adavus
(x) Kitatakatankita tom.
(xiii) Simple Korvais (combinations) in Adi talam
(xiv) Gati—Simple forward and backward gaits
(xv) Alarippu—Tisram
(xvi) Tala—Adi talam and Rupaka talam with clapping and ability to repeat the adavu syllables in trikala in aditalam.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Urdu Core

Section-A

Maximum Marks: 60
Suggested Periods : 210

1. Reading Skills : – 10 marks (25 Periods)
(i) Comprehension of an unseen passage (factual) of about 150 words followed by five questions.

2. Writing Skills : – 30 marks (76 Periods)
(a) Paragraph Writing
(b) General study of newspapers, magazines and periodicals in the language with the object of writing :
(i) Letter to the Editor -10 marks
(ii) Writing and elaborating small news – 5 marks

3. Applied Grammar : – 20 marks (25 Periods)
(a) Knowledge of Parts of Speech : 10 marks
(i) Ism Ki Qismein, Marafa, Nakra
(ii) Zameer Ki Qismein, Mutakallim, Hazir, Ghaeb
(iii) Sifat Ki Qismein, Zati, Nisbati, Adadi, Miqdari

(b) Correction and transformation of words and sentences (all grammatical forms)

(c) Sentence making with the help of idiomatic phrases.

Section-B

Maximum Marks : 40

1. Prose: Prescribed Text-books

A. Book-I
Abbu Khan Ki Bakri By Dr. Zakir Hussain, published by the National Book Trust of India, New Delhi.

(i) One out of two extract from the prescribed book followed by short answer type questions for comprehension.
(ii) One essay type question (100 words) on Content/theme of the prescribed book.
(iii) Four short answer type questions on the lesson of the prescribed book.

B. Book-II
Dehli Ka Yadgar Mushaira By Farhatullah Beg, Published by Anjuman Taraqqi Urdu New Delhi.
(i) One out of two extracts from the prescribed book followed by short answer type questions for comprehension.
(ii) An essay type questions (100 words) on theme/content.
(iii) Four short answer type questions on characters/event/ evaluative in nature.

Recommended Book:

1. Urdu Qawaid, published by the NCERT, New Delhi.

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 Fine Arts

Fine Arts

Note :— Any one the following Courses.
(A) Painting
(B) Graphic
(C) Sculpture
(D) Applied Arts (Commercial Arts)

(A) Painting

Theory Paper
Time: 1 hour
Maximum Marks: 30

• Story of Indian Art (objective and narrative written paper in English/Hindi languages).
• Indus Valley, Jain and Buddhist Art, Tempic Sculpture and South Indian Bronzes.

Practical Paper
Time: 6 hours
Maximum Marks: 70

I. Nature Study and Object Drawing – 25 Marks
Study of two or three natural and geometric forms in pencil with light and shade from a fixed point of view. Natural forms like plants, vegetables, fruits and flowers etc. are to be used. Geometrical forms or objects based on geometrical forms like cubes, cones, prisms, cylinders and spheres should be used.

II. Painting 25 Marks
(i) Simple exercises of basic designs in variation of linear geometric and Rhythmic shapes in primary and secondary colours to understand design as organized visual arrangements.
(ii) Sketches from Life and Nature.

III. Sessional-Submission of port folio consisting of :
(a) Five selected drawings in any media done during the year including minimum of two still life exercises. (10 Marks)
(b) Two selected works of paintings done during the year. (10 Marks)

(B) Graphics

Theory Paper
Time: 1 hour
Maximum Marks: 30
Story of Indian Art-objective and narrative written paper in English/Hindi Languages. Indus Valley, Jain and Buddhist Art, Temple Sculptures and South Indian Bronze.

Practical Paper
Time: 6 hours
Maximum Marks: 70

To make Linocut, woodcut or Paper cardboard print on 1/4 Imperial sheet on a given subject.- (50 Marks)
Syllabus for Relief Printing (Linocuts/woodcuts/paper cardboard prints).
1. Introduction to the history of print making.
2. Printing methods and materials.
3. Characteristics of printing inks, solvents & dyers.
4. Registration methods.
5. Simple, colour painting techniques.
6. Mounting and finishing of the prints.
Sessional Work:

Three selected prints (either form Lincouts/woodcuts/paper card-board prints) prepared during the course by the candidate and certified by the school authorities as the work done in the school will be placed before the examiners for assessment.

Note :— The time-table to be so framed as to allow the students to work continuously for at least two periods together per day.

(C) Sculpture

Theory Paper
Time: 1 hour
Maximum Marks: 30

• Story of Indian Art-(objective and narrative written paper in English Hindi languages).
• Indus Valley, Jain and Buddhist Art Temple Sculptures and South Indian Bronzes.

Practical Paper
Time: 6 hours
Maximum Marks: 70

1. (a) Modelling in Relief on given subjects from life and nature- (25 Marks)
(b) Modelling in Round on given subjects from life and nature- (25 Marks)
Handling of clay and its techniques, pinching, coiling, rolling etc.
Sessional Work – 20 Marks
2. Four selected pieces of works prepared during the course by the candidate and Certified by the school authorities as works executed in the school will be placed before the examiner for assessment.
Note :— The Time-table to be so arranged that students are given at least two periods together, if possible more, with a total of eight periods a week.

(D) Applied Arts (Commercial Art)

Theory Paper
Time: 1 hour
Maximum Marks: 30

• Story of Indian Art-(objective and narrative written paper in English/Hindi languages).
• Indus Valley, Jain and Buddhist Art, Temple Sculptures and South Indian Bronzes.

Practical Paper
Time: 6 hours
Maximum Marks: 70

A. One practical in two parts : (50 Marks)

(i) Drawing
(ii) Lettering and Layout

Part I : Drawing – (25 Marks)
Drawing from Still-Life and Nature, pencil monochrome colour.

Part II : Lettering – (25 Mark)

(i) Study of Roman and Devnagri Lettering.
(ii) Identification of some Type-faces and their sizes.

Layout : Making a simple layout with lettering as the main component.

B. Sessional Work :

Submission of Portfolio consisting of :
(a) Five selected drawings in any media done during the year including minimum of three still lives.- (10 marks)
(b) Two selected works in chosen subject done during the year. – (10 Marks)

## Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 11 French

Section-A : Applied Grammar – 25 marks (50 Periods)

• Filling up blanks with appropriate parts of speech.

• Transformation of sentences.

• Based on chapter 1-17 of Prescribed book

Section-B : Comprehension / Reading – 25 marks (30 Periods)

• One passage from the prescribed book -15 marks

(Prose / Poetry)
One Unseen passage -10 marks
(variety of comprehension questions. including short answer questions & vocabulary (word attack)

Section-C : Writing Skills/Composition – 20 marks (40 Periods)

• Writing a story based on outlines provided (120 words) – 10 marks

• One unaided composition based on the topics in the 10 Prescribed book (120 words) – 10 marks

Section-D : Literature – 30 marks

(Short answer questions on prescribed texts)
Prose
Comprehension of the prescribed text (Chapter 1-17)
Poetry

Poems to be studied :
1. La Route by CF Rameez
2. Les Villages by F Jammes
3. Page d’ecriture by J. Prevert
4. Les enfants dans le jardin public by Victor Hugo
5. Barcarolle by Th. Gautier

Prescribed Book: Cours De Langue Et Civilization
Francaises-II by G. Mauger

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