HPBOSE Syllabus Class 12 – Himachal Pradesh Syllabus HSC

Download Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus HPBOSE Syllabus Class 12. Himachal Pradesh Syllabus HSC.

HPBOSE Syllabus Class 12 – Himachal Pradesh Syllabus HSC

Part-1 Indian Society (43 marks)

Unit I: Structure of Indian Society (Periods 20)

  1. Introduction Indian Society: Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community (7 marks)
  2. Demographic Structure
  3. Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions

Unit II: Social Institutions: Continuity & Change (Periods 24)

  1. Family and Kinship (12 marks)
  2. The Cast System
  3. Tribal Society
  4. The Market as a Social Institution

Unit III: Social Inequality & Exclusion (Periods 24)

  1. Caste Prejudice, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes (12 marks)
  2. Marginalization of Tribal Communities
  3. The Struggle for Women’s Equality
  4. The Protection of Religious Minorities
  5. Caring for the Differently Abled

Unit IV: The Challenges of Unity in Diversity (Periods 12)

  1. Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism & Patriarchy (12 marks)
  2. Role of the State in a Plural and Unequal Society
  3. What We Share

Part2: Change and Development in India (42 marks)

Unit V : Process of Social Change in India (Periods 22)

  1. Process of Structural Change : Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization (8 marks)
  2. Process of Cultural Change : Modernization, Westernization, Sanskritisation, Secularization.
  3. Social Reform Movements & Laws

Unit VI: Social Change and The Polity (Periods 22)

  1. The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change (8 Marks)
  2. Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics
  3. Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation

Unit VII: Social Change & The Economy (Periods 24)

  1. Land Reforms, the Green Revolution and Agrarian Society (10 Marks)
  2. From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
  3. Change in the Class Structure

Unit VIII: New Areas of Social Change (Periods 22)

  1. Media and Social Change (8 Marks)
  2. Globalization and Social change

Unit IX : Social Movements (Periods 22)

  1. Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants. (8 Marks)
  2. Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Castes, Trends in Upper Caste Responses.
  3. Women’s Movements in Independent India.
  4. Tribal Movements.
  5. Environmental Movements.

Books Recommended:

Indian Society-Sociology:-Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Physics

Unit I: Electrostatics (Periods-25)

Electric Charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor; Dielectrics and, electric polarisation, capacitor and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates; energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Unit II: Current Electricity (Periods-22)

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics, (linear and non-linear) electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, Potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.

Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III : Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism (Periods 25)

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot-Savart law, and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment; Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron; Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements; Para, dia and ferro-magnetic substances with examples, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths Permanent magnets.

Unit IV : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current (Periods 20)

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, Induced emf and current, Lenz’s law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance.

Need for displacement current.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; Power in AC circuits, wattless current.

AC generator and transformer.

Unit V Electromagnetic Waves (Periods 4)

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only); Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radiowaves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI : Optics (Periods 30)

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sun rise and sunset.

Optical instruments – Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave Optics : Wave front and Huygen’s principle; reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference – Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light, Brewster’s law; uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

Unit VII : Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation (Periods 8)

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson -Germer experiment.

Unit VIII : Atomic & Nuclei (Periods 18)

Alpha-particle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones, Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit IX : Electronic Devices (Periods 18)

Semiconductors; Semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR); Transistor as a switch.

Unit X : Communication Systems (Periods 10)

Elements of a communication systems (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.


Section- A


1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire using meter bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a meter bridge.
4. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer,
6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance of figure of merit) into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer.


1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.



1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of, a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between l/u and 1/v.
3. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
9. To draw the characteristic curves of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
10. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp, transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.


1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.D.R.
2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
3. Use of multimeter to
(i) Identify base of transistor
(ii) Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors
(iii) See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
(iv) Check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or I C ) is in working order.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.
6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit
7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by
(i) convex lens
(ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

Books Recommended: Published by N.C.E.R.T., New Delhi

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Political Science

Part A: Politics In India Since Independence

1. Era of One-Party Dominance: First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalition nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.

2. Nation-Building and Its Problems: Nehru’s approach to nation-building: Legacy of partition: challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organization and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.

3. Politics of Planned Development: Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallout.

4. India’s External Relations: Nehru’s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India’s nuclear program and shifting alliances in world politics.

5. Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System: Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress’ victory in 1971 elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’.

6. Crisis of the Constitutional Order : Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organizations.

7. Regional Aspirations and Conflicts: Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.

8. Rise of New Social Movements: Farmers’ movements, Women’s movement, Environment and Development-affected people’s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.

9. Democratic Upsurge and Coalition Politics: Participatory upsurge in 1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. UF and NDA governments. Elections 2004 and UPA government.

10. Recent issues and challenges: Challenge of and responses to globalization: new economic policy and its opposition. Rise of OBCs in North Indian politics. Dalit politics in electoral and non-electoral arena. Challenge of communalism: Ayodhya dispute, Gujarat riots.

Part-B: Contemporary World Politics

11. Cold War Era in World Politics: Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.

12. Disintegration of the ‘Second World’ and the Collapse of Bipolarity: New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post- communist regimes. India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.

13. US Dominance in World Politics: Growth of unilateralism : Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India’s renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.

14. Alternative Centers of Economic and Political Power: Rise of China as an economic power in post-Mao era, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India’s changing relations with China.

15. South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era: Democratisation and its reversals in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India’s relations with its neighbours.

16. International Organizations in a unipolar World: Restructuring and the future of the UN. India’s position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?

17. Security in Contemporary World: Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non- traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.

18. Globalisation and Its Critics: Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Psychology

Psychology and Self & Psychology and Society

Unit I : Variations in Psychological Attributes (07 Marks) (20 Periods)

  • The unit aims at studying how people differ with respect to their various psychological attributes.
  • Individual differences in human functioning Assessment of psychological attributes; Intelligence: Individual difference in intelligence: Theories of Intelligence: Culture and Intelligence: Emotional intelligence: Special abilities: Aptitude-nature and measurement; Creativity

Unit II : Self and Personality (08 Marks) (24 Periods)

  • The unit focuses on the study of self and personality in the context of different approaches in an effort to appraise the person. The assessment of personality will also be discussed.
  • Concepts of self, concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self- regulation; Culture and self; Personality concept; Major approaches-Type and Trait, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioural, Cultural; Assessment of personality: Self-report measures, behavioural analysis, and projective measures.

Unit III : Meeting Life Challenges (06 Marks) (14 Periods)

  • This unit deals with the nature of stress and how responses to stress depend on an individual’s appraisal of stressors. Strategies to cope with stress will also be dealt with.
  • Nature, types and sources of stress; Effects on psychological functioning and health; Coping and stress; Promoting positive health and well-being.

Unit IV : Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders (07 Marks) (24 Periods)

  • This unit discusses the concepts of normality and abnormality and the major psychological disorders.
  • Concepts of abnormality and Psychological disorder, Factors, underlying abnormal behaviour, Classification of disorder, Major psychological disorders – Anxiety, Somato-form Dissociative, Mood, Schizophrenic, Developmental and Behavioural Substance Related.

Unit V : Therapeutic Approaches (06 Marks) (20 Periods)

  • The unit discuses the goals, techniques and effectiveness of different approaches to treat psychological disorders.
  • Nature and process of therapy; Therapeutic relationship; Types of therapies: Psycho-dynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive, Behaviour and Bio-medical; Alternative therapies – Yoga, Meditation; Rehabilitation of mentally ill.

Unit VI : Attitude and Social Cognition (07 Marks) (20 Periods)

  • This unit focuses on formation and change of attitudes, cultural influences on attributional tendencies and conditions influencing pro- social behaviour.
  • Explaining social behaviour: Impression formation and explaining behaviour of others through attributions; Social cognition; Schemas and stereotypes; Nature and components of attitudes; Attitude formation and change; Behaviour in the presence of others; Pro- social Behaviour; Prejudice and discrimination; Strategies for handling prejudice.

Unit VII : Social Influence and Group Processes 06 Marks (22 Periods)

  • The unit deals with the concept of group, its functions and the dynamics of social influence on conformity, obedience and compliance. Different conflict resolution strategies will also be discussed.
  • Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance; Cooperation and Competition; Groups : Nature, formation and Types; Influence of group on individual behaviour, Inter-Group Conflicts; Conflict resolution strategies.

Unit VIII: Psychology and Life (07 Marks) (18 Periods)

  • The unit focuses on the application of psychological understanding to some important social issues.
  • Human-environment relationship; Environmental effects on human behaviour: Noise, pollution, crowding, natural disasters, Psychology and social concerns: Aggression, Violence and Peace,Discrimination and Poverty, health, impact of television on behaviour Promoting pro-environmental behaviour.

Unit IX: Chapter 9 Developing Psychological Skills (06 Marks) (18 Periods)

  • The unit deals with some effective Psychological and interpersonal skills for facilitating personal-social development.
  • Effective psychological skills: Observational skills, Interviewing skills, Testing skills Counseling skills, Communication skills.

Practicals Psychological testing (Profile) (25 Marks) (60 Periods)

The students shall be required to prepare one case profile and conduct five practicals related to the topics covered in the course. The case profile will include developmental history of the subject, using both qualitative (observation, interview, rating scale etc.) and quantitative (Psychological testing) approaches. Practicals would involve using standardised psychological assessment devices in different domains (intelligence, personality, aptitude, adjustment, attitude, self-concept, and anxiety).

Marks Distribution:

(i) Reporting file including case profile : 04 Marks

(ii) Viva Voce : 05 Marks

(iii) Two practicals 8 marks each 4 for accurate conduct and 4 for reporting

Books Recommended:

Psychology -Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy

Part-A: Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations, Partnership Firms and Companies. (Periods 124)

Unit 1 : Accounting for Not-For-Profit Organisations (Periods 22)

  1. Not for profit organisation : Meaning and examples.
  2. Receipts and payments : Meaning and concept of fund based accounting.

  3. Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet from Receipt and Payment Account with additional information.

Unit 2 : Accounting for Partnership Firms (Periods 14)

  1. Nature of Partnership firm : Partnership Deed-meaning, importance.

  2. Final Accounts of Partnership : Fixed vs fluctuating Capital, Division of Profit among partners, Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.

Unit 3 : Reconstitution of Partnership (Periods 34)

  1. Changes in Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners-Sacrificing Ratio and Gaining Ratio.

  2. Accounting for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities and distribution of reserves and Accumulated Profits.

  3. Goods will : Nature, Factors affecting and methods of valuation: Average profit, Super profit and Capitalisation methods.

  4. Admission of a partner : Effect of Admission of Partner, change in Profit sharing Ratio, Accounting Treatment for Goodwill, Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities, Reserves (Accumulated Profits) and Adjustment of Capitals.

  5. Retirement/Death of a partner : Changer in Profit sharing ratio, accounting treatment of Goodwill, Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities, adjustment of accumulated Profits (Reserves) and capitals.

Unit 4 : Accounting for Share Capital and Debenture (Periods 54)

  1. Share Capital : Meaning, Nature and Types.

  2. Accounting for share capital : Issue and Allotment of Equity and Preference Shares ; Private placement of shares, meaning of employee stock option plan, public subscription of shares ; over subscription and under subscription ; issue at par, premium and at discount ; calls in advance, calls in arrears, issue of shares for consideration other than cash.

  3. Forfeiture of shares : accounting treatment, re-issue of forfeited shares.

  4. Presentation of Share Capital and Debenture in company’s Balance Sheet.

  5. Issue of debenture-at par and premium ; issue of debenture for consideration other than cash.

  6. Redemption of debenture.

  7. Out of proceeds of fresh issue, accumulated profits and sinking fund.

Part-B : Financial Statement Analysis

Unit 5 : Analysis of Financial statements (Periods 33)

  1. Financial statements of a Company : Preparation of simple balance sheet of a company in the prescribed from with major headings only.

  2. Financial Statement Analysis : meaning, significance and purpose, limitations

  3. Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative Statements, Common Size Statements.

  4. Accounting Ratios: Meaning and Objectives, types of ratios

  5. Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio, Liquidity Ratio

  6. Solvency Ratios: Debt of Equity, Total Assets of Debt, proprietary ratio

  7. Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover, Debtors Turnover, Payables Turnover, Working Capital Turnover, Fixed Assets Turnover, Current Assets Turnover.

  8. Profitability Ratio : Gross Profit, Operating Ratio, Net Profit Ratio, Return on Investment, Earning per share, Dividend per Share, Profit Earning Ratio.

Unit : 6 Cash Flow Statement (Periods 33)

  1. Cash Flow statement: Meaning and objectives, Preparation, adjustments related to depreciation, dividend and tax, sale and purchase of non-current assets (as per revised standard issued by ICAI)

Unit : 7 Project Work in Accounting (Period 18)

Books Recommended:

1. Accountancy book for Part A
2. Accountancy book for Part B- Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies

Part A: Principles and Functions of Management

Unit 1 : Nature and Significance of Management (Periods 14)

  1. Management-concept, objectives, importance.

  2. Nature of management; Management as Science, Art, Profession.

  3. Levels of management-top, middle, supervisory (first level)
  4. Management functions-planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling
  5. Coordination-nature and importance.

Unit 2 : Principles of Management (Periods 14)

  1. Principles of Management-meaning, nature and significance
  2. Fayol’s Principles of management.

  3. Taylor’s Scientific Management-Principles and Techniques.

Unit 3 : Business Environment (Periods 10)

  1. Business Environment-meaning and importance.
  2. Dimensions of Business Environment-Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal.

  3. Economic Environment in India; Impact of Government policy changes on business and industry, with special reference to adoption of the policies of liberalization, privatization and globalisation.

Unit 4 : Planning (Periods 14)

  1. Meaning features, importance, limitations

  2. Planning process.

  3. Types of Plans – Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget, Programme.

Unit-5 Organising (Periods 16)

  1. Meaning and importance.

  2. Steps in the process of organising.

  3. Structure of organization-functional and divisional.

  4. Formal and informal organization.

  5. Delegation : meaning, elements and importance.

  6. Decentralization : meaning and importance.

  7. Difference between delegation and decentralization.

Unit 6 : Staffing (Periods 16)

  1. Meaning, need and importance of staffing
  2. Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management

  3. Steps in staffing process

  4. Recruitment-meaning and sources

  5. Selection-meaning and process

  6. Training and Development-meaning and need. Methods of training : job rotation, apprenticeship, vestibule and internship.

Unit 7: Directing (Periods 22)

  1. Meaning, importance and principles

  2. Elements of Directing

Supervision-meanings and importance

Motivation-meaning and importance, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; Financial and non-financial incentives.

  • Leadership-meaning, importance ; qualities of a good leader.

  • Communication – meaning and importance, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication.

Unit 8: Controlling (Periods 14)

  1. Meaning and importance

  2. Relationship between planning and controlling

  3. Steps in the process of control

  4. Techniques of controlling : budgetary control

Part-B : Business Finance and Marketing
Unit 9 : Financial Management (Periods 22)

  1. Meaning, role, objectives of financial management
  2. Financial planning – meaning and importance

  3. Capital Structure – meaning and factors

  4. Fixed and Working Capital-Meanings and factors affecting its requirements.

Unit 10 : Financial Markets (Periods 20)

  1. Concept of Financial Market : Money Market-nature, instruments
  2. Capital market : nature and types-primary and secondary market.

  3. Distinction between capital market and money market.

  4. Stock Exchange-meaning, functions, NSEI, OCTEL, Trading Procedure.

  5. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)- Objectives, Functions.

Unit 11 : Marketing (Periods 30)

  1. Marketing – meaning, functions and role
  2. Distinction between marketing and selling

  3. Marketing mix- concept and elements.

  • Product- nature, classification, branding, labeling and packaging

  • Physical distribution : meaning, role; Channels of distribution meaning, types, factors determining choice of channels.

  • Promotion-meaning and role, promotion mix, Role of Advertising and personal selling; objections to Advertising.

  • Price : factors influencing pricing

Unit-12 : Consumer Protection (Periods 16)

  • Importance of consumer protection

  • Consumer rights

  • Consumer responsibilities

  • Ways and means of consumer protection-Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to Consumer Protection Act.

  • Role of consumer organizations and NGOs.

Books Recommended:

Business Studies Part-I and Part-II -Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

I. Sexual Reproduction (35 Periods)
Pollination and Fertilization in Flowering plants.
Development of seeds and fruits.
Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle. Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and parturition.
Reproductive health-birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.

II. Genetics and evolution (45 Periods)
Mendelian inheritance.
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction-Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles).
Sex determination in human beings: XX, XY
Linkage and crossing over.
Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings.
DNA : replication, transcription, translation.
Gene expression and regulation.
Genome and Human Genome Project.
DNA fingerprinting.
Evolution : Theories and evidences.

III. Biology and Human Welfare (35 Periods)
Animal husbandry.
Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Pathogens, Parasites
Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.
Microbes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and ENE generation.
Cancer and AIDS.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse.

IV Biotechnology and ITS Applications (30 Periods)
Recombinant DNA technology.
Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry
Genetically modified (GM) organisms; bio safety issues.
Insulin and Bt cotton.

V. Ecology & Environment (35 Periods)
Ecosystems : components, types and energy flow.
Species, population and community.
Ecological adaptations.
Centres of diversity and conservation of biodiversity National Parks and sanctuaries, Environmental issues.

Time : 3 Hours
60 Periods


Two experiments

3 + 3 = 6


Slide preparation






Investigatory project and Viva based on the project



Record and Viva based on the experiment




List of Experiments:

1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content.
3. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them
4. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any living organisms.
5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
6. Study of plant population density by quadrant method.
7. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.

Study/Observation of the Following (Spotting)

1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (weed, insect)
2. Study of pollen germination on a slide.
3. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. t.s. testis and t.s ovary through permanent slide.
4. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide.
5. Study of t.s. of blastula through permanent slide.
6. Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
7. Study prepared prediqree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, widow’s peak, colour blindness.
8. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. To identify common diseases causing organism like Ascaris, Antamoeba, Plasmo dium, ringworm. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens.
10. Study plants and animals found in xerophytic condition. Comment upon their adaptation/ecosystem.
11. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their adaptation/ecosystem.
12. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.

Books Recommended: Biology: Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Economics

Part A: Introductory Micro Economics

Unit 1: Introduction (10 Periods)

What is microeconomics ?
Central problems of an economy, production possibility curve and opportunity cost.

Unit 2: Consumer Behaviour and Demand (25 Periods)

Consumer’s Equilibrium – meaning and attainment of equilibrium through Utility Approach: One and two commodity cases.

Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, movement along and shifts in demand curve, price elasticity of demand, measurement of price elasticity of demand – percentage, total expenditure and geometric methods.

Unit 3: Producer Behaviour and Supply (37 Periods)

Production function – Returns to a factor and returns to scale.

Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve, movement along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply, measurement of price elasticity of supply – percentage and geometric method.

Cost and Revenue – Short-run costs-Total cost, Total variable cost, Total Fixed cost; Average Fixed cost, Average Variable cost and Marginal cost-meaning and their relationship. Revenue total, average and marginal revenue-

Producers equilibrium-Meaning and its conditions in terms of total cost and total revenue.

Unit 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination (20 Periods)

Forms of market – Perfect competition, competition – their meaning and features.

Price determination under perfect competition – Equilibrium price, effects of shifts in demand and supply.

Unit 5: Simple Applications of Tools of Demand and Supply curves (12 Periods)

Part B: Introductory Macro Economics

Unit 6 : Chapter 2 National Income and Related Aggregates (30 Periods)

Macroeconomics: Meaning.

Circular flow of income, concepts of GDP, GNP, NDP, NNP (at market price and factor cost), National Disposable Income (gross and net); Private Income, Personal, Income and Personal Disposable Income, Measurement of National Income – Value Added method, Income method and Expenditure method.

Unit 7: Determination of Income and Employment (25 Periods)

Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply and their components.
Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average ad marginal).
Meaning of Involuntary unemployment and full employment.
Determination of income and employment : Two sector model
Concept of investment multiplier and its working.
Problems of excess and deficient demand.
Measures to correct excess and deficient demand – availability of credit, change in Government spending.

Unit-8: Money and Banking (18 Periods) (18 Periods)

Money – meaning and functions.
Central bank – meaning and functions.
Commercial banks – meaning and functions.
Recent significant reforms and issues in India Banking System.
Privatization and Modernization.

Unit-9 : Government Budget And The Economy (17 Periods)

Government budget – meaning and its components.

Objectives of government budget.

Classification of receipts – revenue and capital; classification of expenditure – revenue and capital, plan and non-plan, and developmental and non-developmental. Balanced budget, surplus budget and deficit budget: meaning and implications. Revenue deficit, fiscal deficit and primary deficit : meaning and implications; measures to contain different deficits.

Down sizing the role of government : Meaning and implications.

Unit-10 : Chapter 10 Balance of Payments

Foreign exchange rate – meaning (Fixed and Flexible), merits and demerits;

Determination through demand and supply.

Balance of payments account – meaning and components.

A brief analysis about recent exchange rate issues.

Books Recommended:

Introductory Microeconomics : Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.
Introductory Macroeconomics: Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 English Core


Reading Unseen Passages and Note making – 17 marks and 40 periods

Two unseen passage with a variety of questions including 03 marks for vocabulary such as word formation and inferring meaning and 04 marks for note-making.

The total length of the two passages will be between 950-1200 words. The passages will include two of the following :

(a) Factual Passages e.g. instructions, descriptions, reports.
(b) Discursive Passage involving opinion e.g. argumentative, persuasive or interpretative text.
(c) Literary Passage e.g. extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography.


Unseen Passages

No. of Words

Testing Areas

Marks Allotted



Short answer type question to test local, global and inferential comprehension (7),

Vocabulary (3)




Note-making in an appropriate format (4)

Abstraction (3)


1. A passage to test reading comprehension. The passage can be literary, factual or discursive. The length of the passage should be between 600- 700 words. (10 marks)

2. A shorter passage of 350-500 words for note-making and abstraction. (07 marks)


Advanced Writing Skills

29 Marks

70 Periods

3. One out of two short compositions of not more than 50 words each e.g. advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies.


4. A report or a factual description based on verbal input provided (one out of two) (100-125 words)


5. Writing one out of two letters based on verbal 8


Letter type include:

a) Business or official letters (for making inquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies)

b) Letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue)

c) Application for a job


6. One out of two compositions based on visual and/or verbal input (150-200 words). Output may be descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article, or a speech.


Text Books

39 Marks

100 Periods

Prescribed Books: English Reader

7. One out of two extracts based on poetry from the text to test comprehension and appreciation

8. Three out of four short questions from the poetry sections to test local and global

comprehension of text.

9. Four short answer questions based on the lessons from prescribed text. (2 x 4)

10. One out of two long answer type questions based on the text to test global comprehension

and extrapolation beyond the set text. (Expected word limit about 125-150 words each)






Supplementary Reader

11. One out of two long answer type question based on Supplementary Reader to test

comprehension and extrapolation of theme,

character and incidents (Expected word limit

about 125-150 words)

12. Four Short answer questions from the Supplementary Reader (2 x 4)

Prescribed Books :

1. Flemingo – Published by Dharamshala. H.P. Board of School Education,

2. Vistas – Published by Dharamshala. H.P. Board of School Education,

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Geography

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography (70 Periods) (30 Marks)

Unit1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (3 Periods)

Unit 2: People (15 Periods):

  • Population of the world — distribution, density and growth
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population changes;
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit-3: Human Activities (25 Periods)

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries;
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, large-scale; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Tertiary activities-concept, trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities – some examples from selected countries

Unit-4: Transport, Communication and Trade (19 Periods)

  • Land transport – roads, railway- rail network; trans-continental railways;
  • Water transport – inland waterways; major ocean routes;
  • Air Transport Inter continental air routes;
  • Oil and gas pipelines;
  • Satellite communication and cyber space
  • International trade-Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in international trade.

Unit-5: Human Settlements (8 Periods)

  • Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Unit 6: Map Work outline Political Map of World- Identification only (2 marks)

B. India: People and Economy (70 Periods) (30 marks)

Unit-7: People

  • Population distribution, density and growth; composition of population; linguistic and religious; rural-urban population; change through time-regional variations; occupation;
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;
  • Chapter 4 Human Development – selected indicators and regional patterns.
  • Population, environment and development.

Unit-8: Human Settlements (8 Periods)

  • Rural Settlements – types of distribution;
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution, and functional classification.

Unit 9: Resources and Development

  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use-major crops; agricultural development and problems; Distribution of Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugar cane and Rubber).
  • Water resources – availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced).
  • Mineral and energy resources-metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese) and non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals and their distribution; conventional (Coal, Petroleum Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas).
  • Industries – types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries – iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location.
  • Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade (12 Periods)

  • Transport and communication – roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networking – radio, television, satellite and internet.
  • International trade-changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic) (10 Periods)

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.
  • Urbanization-rural-urban migration; problem of slum.
  • Land Degradation.

Unit 12: Map Work – on outline political map of India for locating and labeling (3 Marks)
C. Practical Work (25 marks)

Unit I : Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (20 Periods)

  • Sources of data.
  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency, deviation and rank correlation;
  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; chlropleth and isopleth maps
  • Use of computers in data processing and mapping.

Unit II: Field Study of Spatial Information Technology (Periods 10)

  • Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, drought and impacts, flood catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analyzed with diagrams and maps)


Spatial Information Technology

  • Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; roster and vector data, data input, editing & topology building; data analysis; overlay & buffer.

Books Recommended:

  • Fundamental of Human Geography
  • India – People and Economy
  • Practical Work in Geography-II

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry

Unit I : Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.

Unit II : Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of B.P. depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.

Unit III : Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions, conductance in electroytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cellelectroytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells ; corrosion.

Unit IV : Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)

Unit V : Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Absorption – physisorption and chemisorption factors affecting adsorption of gases of solids; catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity : enzyme catalysis; colloidal state : distinction between true solutions colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular, and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions.

Unit VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8)
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and Iron.

Unit VII : p-Block Elements (Periods 16)
Group 15 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses ; compounds of nitrogen; preparation, properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms ; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only)

Group 16 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur- allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur : preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens : Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only)

Group 18 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII : d and f-Block Elements (Periods 14)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.

Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.

Unit IX : Coordination Compounds (Periods 12)
Coordination Compounds – introduction, ligands and coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).

Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)

Haloalkanes :

Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.


Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)

Uses and environmental effects of -dichloromethane, trichloromethane,tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit XI : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII : Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides : will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV : Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Carbohydrates : Classification, (aldoses and ketoses) monosaccharides, (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins : Elementary idea of a-amino acids: peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structures and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins: Classification and functions
Nucleic Acids : DNA & RNA.

Unit XV : Polymers (Periods 8)
Classification : natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers : natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.

Unit XVI : Chemistry in Everyday Life (Periods 8)
1. Chemicals in medicines : analygesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemics in food : preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents : soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Practicals Syllabus

A. Surface Chemistry (Periods 6)
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.
Lyophilic sol-Starch, egg albumin and gum.
Lyophobic sol – aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsensious sulphide.

(b) Study of the role of emulsifying agent in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.

B. Chemical Kinetics (Periods 4)
(a) Effect of concentratiion and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction fo iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperatue using different concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KIO3 and sodium sulphite: (Na2 SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).

C. Thermochemistry (Periods 6)
a) Any one of the following experiments:
(i) Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
(ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH)
(iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.

D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+||CU2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.

E. Chromatography (Periods 2)
(i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by pap chromatography and determination of Rf values.
(ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing cations only (constituents having wide difference in Rf values to be provided)

F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4)
(i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
(ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.

G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 4)
Preparation of any two of the following compounds
(i) Acetanilide
(ii) Di-benzal acetone
(iii) p-Nitroacetanilide
(iv) Aniline yellow or 2- Napthol aniline dye.
(v) Iodoform

H. Test for the functional groups present in organic compounds : (Periods 6)
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary groups).

I. Study of Carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in given food stuffs. (Periods 4)

J. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of : (Periods 8)
(i) Oxalic acid
(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate.
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves)

K. Qualitative analysis (Periods 16)

Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt

Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, AI3+, Fe3+ Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+

Anions – CO32–, S2–, SO32,SO42 , NO2, NO3,Cl , Br , I , PO3-4; C2O4 2–, CH3COO

Note: Insoluble salts excluded


Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A Few suggested Projects

Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.

Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc.)

Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and, effect of PH and temperature on it.

Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram, flour, Potato juice, carrot juice etc.

Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).

Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil butter sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.

Note : Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 period of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

Books Recommended:
i) Chemistry Part-I
ii) Chemistry Part-II -Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 History

Themes in Indian History



1. The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archeology.

Broad overview: Early urban centers.

Story of discovery: Harappan civilization

Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site.

Discussion: how it has been utilized by archaeologists/

  • Familiarize the learner with early urban centers as economic and social institutions.
  • Introduce the ways in which new data can lead to a revision of existing notions of history.
  • Illustrate how archaeological reports are analyzed and interpreted by scholars.
2. Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story.

Broad overview: Political and economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period.

Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the

decipherment of the script. Shifts in the under standing of political and economic history.

Excerpt : Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant.

Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.

  • Familiarize the learner with major trends in the political and economic history of the subcontinent.
  • Introduce in inscription analysis and the ways in which these have shaped the understanding of political and economic processes.
3. Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata Broad Overview: Issues in social history, including caste, class kinship and gender.

Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharata.

Excerpt: from the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians.

Discussion: Other sources for reconstructing social history.

  • Familiarize the learner with issues in social history. Introduce strategies of textual analysis and their use in reconstructing social history.
4. A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa

Broad overview:

(a) A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaisnavism, Saivism.

(b) Focus on Buddhism.

Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa

Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi.

Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism

  • Discuss the major religious developments in early India.
  • Introduce strategies of visual analysis and their use in reconstructing histories ofreligion.
5. Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i-Akbari

Broad overview:

(a) Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries

(b) Patterns of change over the period.

Story of discovery : Account of the compilation and translation of Ain-i-Akbari

Excerpt: From the Ain-i-Akbari

Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the text to reconstruct history.

  • Discuss developments in agrarian relations.
  • Discuss how to supplement official documents with other sources.
6. The Mughal Court: Re-constructing Histories through Chronicles

Broad overview :

(a) Outline of political history 15th -17thcenturies.

(b) Discussion of the Mughal court and politics.

Story of discovery: Account of the production of court chronicles and their subsequent, translation

and transmission.

Excerpts: From the Akbarnama and Padshahnama.

Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the texts to reconstruct political histories.

  • Familiarize the learner with the major landmarks in political history.
  • Show how chronicles and other sources are used to reconstruct the histories of political institutions.
7. New Architecture : Hampi

Broad overview :

(a) Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar period- temples, forts, irrigation facilities.

(b) Relationship between architecture and the political system.

Story of discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.

Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi.

Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.

  • Familiarize the learner with the new buildings that were built during the time.
  • Discuss the ways in which architecture can be analyzed to reconstruct history.
8. Religious Histories: The Bhakti- Sufi tradition

Broad overview:

(a) Outline of religious development during this


(b) Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi saints.

Story of Transmission : How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved.

Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti Sufi works.

Discussion: Ways in which these

have been interpreted by historians.

  • Familiarize the learner with religious developments.
  • Discuss ways of analyzing devotionalliterature as sources of history.
9. Medieval Society Through Travellers’Accounts

Broad overview : Outline of social and cultural life as they appear in travellers’ accounts.

Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, why they travelled, what they wrote, and for whom they wrote.

Excepts: from Alberuni, Ibn Batuta, Bernier.

Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians.

  • Familiarize the learner with the salient features of social histories described by the travellers.
  • Discuss how travellers’ accounts can be used as sources of social history.
10. Colonialism and-Rural Society : Evidence from official Reports.

Broad overview:

(a) Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans

in the later 18 century

(b) East India Company, revenue settlements and


(c) Changes over the nineteenth century.

Story of official records: An account of why official investigations into rural societies were

under taken and the types of records and reports produced.

Excerpt: From Firminger’s Fifth Report, Accounts of Frances Buchanan-Hamilton, and Deccan Riots Report.

Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians.

  • Discuss how colonialism affected Zamindars, peasants and artisans.
  • Understand the problems and limits of using official sources for understanding the lives of people
11. Representations of 1857

Broad overview:

(a) The events of 1857-58.

(b) How these events were recorded and narrated.

Focus: Lucknow.

Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.

Discussion: How the pictures of

1857 shaped British opinion of what

had happened.

  • Discuss how the events of 1857 are being reinterpreted.

  • Discuss how visual material can be used by historians.

12. Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports.

Broad overview : The growth of Mumbai, Chennai, hill stations and cantonments in the 18th and 19th century.

Excerpts: Photographs and paintings. Plans of cities. Extract from town plan reports. Focus on Kolkata town planning.

Discussion: How the above sources can be used to reconstruct the history of towns. What these

sources do not reveal

  • Familiarize the learner with the history of modern urban centers.
  • Discuss how urban histories can be written by drawing on different types of sources.
13. Mahatma Gandhi Through contemporary Eyes

Board Overview :

(a) The nationalist movement 1918-48,

(b) The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership

Focus: Mahatma Gandhi in 1931.

Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings.

Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history.

  • Familiarize the learner with significant elements of the nationalist movement and the nature of Gandhian leadership.
  • Discuss how Gandhi was perceived by different groups.
  • Discuss how historians need to read and interpret newspapers diaries and letters as historical source.
14. Partition through oral sources

Board Overview:

(a) The history of the 1940s;

(b) Nationalism. Communalism and Partition.

Focus: Punjab and Bengal

Excerpts: Oral testimonies of those who experienced partition.

Discussion: Ways in which these have been analyzed to reconstruct the history of the event.

  • Discuss the last decade of the national movement, the growth of communalism and the story of Partition.
  • Understand the events through the experience of those who lived through these years of communal violence.
  • Show the possibilities and limits of oral sources.
15. The Making of the Constitution

Board Overview:

(a) Independence and the new nation


(b) The making of the constitution.

Focus: The Constitutional Assembly debates.

Excerpts: From the debates.

Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed.

  • Familiarize students with the history of the early years after independence.
  • Discuss how the founding ideals of the new nation state were debated and formulated.
  • Understand how such debates and discussions can be read by historians.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Home Science

Unit I: Know Little Children (0-3 years) (Periods 34)

Some specific characteristics: Physical and motor-height weight and body proportions; motor development during 0-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 1-3 years (milestones only); social and emotional developments; recognition of people around; socialization, expression of emotions; cognitive development; learning through concrete operations and language development.

Protection from preventable diseases: Immunization – concept and types (natural & acquired), breast feeding (one of the ways to develop natural immunity); Immunization Chart; Symptoms and incubation period of childhood diseases-TB, DPT, polio, measles, cholera, diarrhea.

Special needs of disadvantaged and disabled children-socially disadvantaged, physically handicapped (partially blind & deaf, affected/ missing limb): Characteristics & needs.

Substitute care at home and outside: Siblings, grand parents, neighbours creche, day care centres etc. Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) objectives & functions.

Unit-II: Nutrition For Self and Family (Periods 36)

Planning meals for the family: meaning and importance of meal planning, principles and factors affecting meal planning, planning meals for the family; keeping in mind the needs of individual members, including children, pregnant women, lactating mother, members suffering from fever or diarrhoea; role and preparation of ORS.

Ways to ensure good health for the family: using safe drinking water, importance of potable water for good health, qualities of safe drinking water, household methods of making water safe for drinking; boiling, filtering, use of alum and chlorine tablet role of hygiene for food handlers at home level.
Safety against food adulteration, definition and meaning of food adulteration as given by PFA; common adulterants present in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, fats and oils, sugar, jaggery, honey, spices and condiments. III effects of some of the adulterants present in the foods : kersari dal, metanil yellow, argemone seeds.

Unit III: Money Management and Consumer Education (Periods 8)

Activity: Open account. Find out and report how an account is opened in a bank and post office. Collect and fill forms.

Activity: Read and evaluate labels of any four household item bearing different standadization marks.

Practical: Fill bank/post office forms.

Practical: Prepare one label each for four household items/products bearing different standardization marks.

Unit IV: My Apparel

Practical: Make sample of:
(a) Basic stitches and seams:

(i) Running stitch
(ii) Hemming
(iii) Blind stitch
(iv) Inter locking

(b) Fasterners – Buttons and hooks.

(c) Patch work

Practical: Examine quality in ready-made garments.

Practical: Relative effect of temperature of water on the clothes during the process of washing clothes (cold, lukewarms hot). Draw conclusions and how this knowledge is helpful).

Practical: Removal of stains of:
(i) Tea stain
(ii) Coffee stain
(iii) Curry
(iv) Grease
(v) Ink
(vi) Ball point ink
(vii) Lipstick
(viii) Blood

Practical: Make a soap/detergent (liquid/powder/cake)

List Of Questions

I. List of questions regarding the experiments from Group A (Unit I parts a, b, anc c) 2 marks

1. Prepare a chart to record the milestone of physical development of child from 0-1 year.
2. Prepare a chart to record the milestone of language development of a child from 0-3 years.
3. Prepare a chart to record the milestones of motor development of a child from 0-3 years.
4. Prepare an immunization chart from a child from 0-3 years.
5. Prepare an interview schedule for a working mother to find out her arrangement for her pre-school child in her absence.

II. List of questions regarding the experiments from Group B (Unit II Part a) 8 marks

1. Plan meal for a family and suggest modifications for:

A lactating mother
A pregnant woman
A person suffering from diarrhoea
A person suffering from fever

Prepare one of the modified dishes.

III. List of questions regarding experiments from Group B (Unit II Parts b & c) 2 marks

1. Prepare oral dehydration solution.
2. Test adulteration and identify the adulterant in one of the following :
(i) Cereals
(ii) Pulses
(iii) Milk and milk products
(iv) Tea levels
(v) Dhania Powder
(vi) Gur (Jaggery)
(vii) Haldi Powder
(viii) Black pepper (Whole)

IV. List of questions regarding the experiments from Group C (Unit III parts a and b) 2 marks

1. Select and fill form for one of the following :
(a) To withdraw small amount of money.
(b) To withdraw large amount of money.
(c) To open account in post office/Bank.
(d) To deposit money in cash.

2. Prepare label for any food product with proper quality mark.

V. List of questions regarding experiments from Group D (Unit IV parts a, b and c) 3 marks

1. Make sample of any one of the following:
(i) Hemming
(ii) Running stitch
(iii) Blind stitch
(iv) Inter locking
(v) Fastners-Button or hook

2. Examine two points (i.e. seam fastness, patch, embroidery finishing of edges) in a ready made garment and write your observations.

3. Test the effect of temperature of water (hot, lukewarm and cold on cotton/ wool/silk/nylon/terricot cloth) and record your observations.

VI. List of questions regarding experiments from Group D (Unit IV Parts c and d). 2 marks

1. Remove one of the following stains from a cotton cloth:
(i) Tea stain
(ii) Coffee stain
(iii) Curry stain
(iv) Grease
(v) Ink
(vi) Ball point ink
(vii) Lipstick
(viii) Blood

2. Prepare liquid soap.

3. Prepare powder detergent.

List of Articles to be Supplied by the Centre:

1. Cooking utensils for each candidate – Dekchi with cover, Karahi, Tawa, Chakla-Belen, Karchi, Spoons, Frying Spoons, Fry pan, Stove or Gas Burner, Match Box, Pressure Cooker.
2. Sample of adulterated food.
3. Chemicals and reagents for detection of adulteration.
4. Sample of stain.
5. Reagents for removal of stains.
6. Dry and fresh ingredient according to the question paper set e.g. besan, dal, vegetables, milk, spices etc.
7. Different types of bank and post-office forms.
8. Drawing sheets and plain papers.
9. Gum.
10. Samples of different types of cloth (to test effect of temperature of water).
11. Ingredients for preparation of soaps and detergents.
12. Water arrangements.

List of Articles to be Brought by the Candidates:

1. Serving utensils and cutlery
2. Table, cloth, napkin, tray
3. Tray
4. Painting colours and brushes, felt pen, eraser, scale, scissors
5. Cloth (10 cm ´ 10 cm) (for sample of stitches)
6. Any ready made garment (may be used)
7. Needle and thread
8. Hooks and buttons
9. Dusters – 2
10. Newspapers – 2 sheets
11. Class records or session work.

Books Recommended: Any book confirming to the syllabus.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Public Administration

Unit I Evolution of Indian Administration:

Evolution and Development of Central Administration in India (Mughal and British Period) British influence on Indian administration and its legacies.

Unit II Indian Administration and Constitution:

Indian Administration and its social, Economical, Political, legal and constitutional influence. Legislative administration and financial relations between the Union and the States. Controversy regarding center-state relations.

Unit III Personnel Administration:

All India Services :- Characteristics, merits and demerits Recruitment and Training of I.A.S., I.P.S. and I.F.S. (Forest) Defects of Recruitment and Training in India. Role of U.P.S.C.

Unit IV State Administration:

Governor as Chief Executive. Administrative Secretariat. Role of Chief Secretary.

Unit V Administration of Local Govts.

Meaning, Features, Kinds (Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti, Zila Parishad, Municipal Committee and Municipal Corporation. Role of B.D.O. and Executive Officer. Reasons for unsatisfactory functions of Local Govt. and remedies.

Unit VI Development Administration:

Meaning, significance and essential factors for development administration. Composition and functions of Planning Commission in India, NDC (National Development Council), Contributions and problems of Public Sector in India.

Unit VII Financial Administration:

Budget : Meaning, Kinds, Principles and Significance, Preparation of Budget.

Unit VIII Citizen and Administration:

Importance of citizen’s participation in administration causes of poor citizen’s participation in administration. Methods to make effective citizen’s participation in India.

Unit IX Administrative Tribunals:

Meaning, reasons for growth, advantages and disadvantages. Differences between administrative tribunals and law courts.

Unit X Administrative Corruption:

Meaning, Causes and remedies, Ombudsman (Lokpal). Central Vigilance Commission.

Books Recommended: Any book confirming to the Syllabus.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Philosophy

A. Indian Philosophy

Unit 1: Nature and Schools of Indian Philosophy ; some basic issues Rta , Karma , Four Purusarthas: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksa -24 Pds.

Unit 2: Philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita; Karma Yoga (Anasakta Karma), Svadharama, Lokasamgraha- 24 Pds.

Unit 3: Buddhism, Jainism-24 Pds.
Four noble truths and eight-fold path ; Theory of dependent origination, Anekantavada and syadvada

Unit 4: Nyaya, Vaisesika and Samkhya-Yoga -24 Pds.
Nyaya theory of Pramanas . Yoga- The Eight –fold Practice.
Samkhya Theory of Three Gumas, Vaisesika Theory of Padarthas

Unit 5 : Advaita Vedanta-24 Pds.
The nature of Atman, Brahman and the world.

B. Western Philosophy

Unit 6 : Knowledge and truth-24 Pds.
Rationalism, Empiricism and Kant’s Critical Philosophy

Unit 7: The causal Principle-24 Pds.
Nature of Cause
Aristotle’s theory of four fold causation cause-effect relationship ; entailment, regularity, succession.

Unit 8: Nature of Reality-24 Pds.
Proofs for the existence of God: Ontological, Teleological and Cosmological arguments.

Unit 9 : Realism and Idealism-24 Pds.
Mind Body Problem

C. Applied Philosophy

Unit 10 : Environmental Ethics and Professional Ethics
(a) Study of Physical, mental and spiritual environments
(b) Medical and Business Ethics.
(c) Philosophy of Education

Suggested References:
1. John Patrick: Introduction to Philosophy
2. John Hospers: Introduction to Philosophical Analysis
3. D.M. Datta and S.C. Chatterjee: Introduction to Indian Philosophy
4. M. Haryana: Essentials of Indian Philosophy
5. A.C. Ewing: Fundamental Questions of Philosophy
6. H. Titus: Living Issues in Philosophy
7. C.D.Sharma: A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy
8. William Lillie: An Introduction to Ethics
9. S.R. Bhatta and Anu Mehrotra: Buddhist Epistemology, (Greenwood Publishing House, Connecticus. USA)
10. Shri Aurobindo: On Education, Pondicherry.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Informatics Practices

UNIT 1 : Business Computing

Unit-1: Introduction to Open Source based software:

Terminology: OSS, FLOSS, GNU, FSF, OSI, W3C.

Definitions: Open Source Software, Freeware, Shareware, Proprietary software, Localisation, UNICODE

Software: Linux, Mozilla web browser, Apache server, MySQL, Postgres, Pango, Open Office, Tomcat, PHP, Python.

Websites :www.sourceforge.net, www.openrdf.org, www.opensource.org, www.linux.com, www.linuxindia.net, www.gnu.org.

1. General concepts, User interfaces (Front End), Underlying Database (Back End), Integration of User Interface and Database.

2. More application areas of Databases : Inventory control, Financial Accounting, Pay-Accounting System, Invoicing Management System, Personal Management System / HRD System, Fees Management System, Result Analysis System, Admission Management System, Income Tax Management System.

3. Advanced Program Development Methodology; System Development Life Cycle, Relational Database Concept, Relational Database, Management System, Data Models (Entity Relationship Model), Entity and Entity Set, Attributes (Single, Composite and Multi-Valued), Relationship (One-to-One One-to-Many and Many-to-Many), Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions, Communicating with as RDBMS using SQL, Relational Database Management System, SQL Statements, About programming language in SQL.

4. Data Dictionary, Data Warehousing, Data Mining, Meta Data; Object Modeling; Introduction to object oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (Concepts only).

5. Client Server Computing: Concept of Client Server Computing.

Unit 2 : Programming: Visual Basic

Review of Class XI

Programming Fundamentals:
(i) Modules: Modules in Visual Basic-Form Modules, Standard Modules and Class Modules
(ii) Procedures: Procedures (General, Event, Function, Property)

Control Structures:
(i) Revision of Decision Structure – IF, IF-THEN-ELSE, Select Case
(ii) Revision of Looping Structure-Do While…Loop, Do…Loop While, for….Next, For Each….Next
(iii) Functions: Concept of Functions, Defining and Use of User Defined Function, function to perform calculations, Parametrized Functions
(iv) Library Functions (System Functions)

String Function: Space( ), Str( ), Right( ), Left( ), Mid( ), InStr( ), Len( ), Ltrim( ), Rtrim( ), Ucase( ), Lcase( ), String( )

Numeric Function: Sgn( ), Val( ), Int( )

Time-Related Function: Now( ), Time( ), Minute( ), Month( )

Miscellaneous Function: MsgBox ( ), InputBox ( )

Types of forms: Single Document Interface (SDI) and Multiple Document Interface (MDI)

MDI Applications: Creating MDI from and Child form, Arranging Child Forms

Accessing database from ORACLE using ODBC or ADO or OLEDB; to connect with database.

Data Control: Accessing Data with the Data Control, Using Data-Aware Controls, Using Data Control Properties – Database Name, Exclusive, Options, Read Only, Record Source, Data Control Methods – Refresh, Update Controls, Update Record.

Bound Controls: Adding Bound Text and Bound Label Controls. Data- Bound list Boxes, Grids, and Sub-Forms.

ADO (Active X Data Objects): Connection Object, Command Object, and Record Set Object, Special ADO Properties – Connection String (using single table), Command Text, Command Types, Cursor Locations, Cursor Types, Lock Types, Mode Types.

ADO Data Control: Simple Data linking using ADO Data Control Methods. ADO Data Control Events.

Unit 3 : Relational Database Management System

Review of RDBMS from Class XI

Database Fundamentals

Concept of Database Transaction, Committing a Transaction, Concept ofAll or None” in a Transaction, Network Protocols Required (TCP/IP) for Data Communication, Stored Procedures, Concept of Database Fragmentation and Distribution Databases.

PL/SQL(Programming language in SQL)

Importance of Writing Procedures, Declaring Variables : About PL/ SQL, PL/SQL Block Structure, Program Constructs, Use of Variables, Handling Variables in PL/SQL, Types of Variables, Declaration, Naming Rules, Assigning Values to Variables. Initialization and Keywords, Scalar Data types, Base Scalar Data Types, Scalar Variable Declaration, % TYPE attribute: for variable declaration, Declaring Boolean Variables, PL/SQL Record Structure, Referencing Non-PL/SQL variables, DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE.

Writing Executable Statements : PL/SQL Block Syntax and Guidelines, SQL functions in Code, SQL Functions in PL/SQL, PL/SQL Functions, Data type Conversion, Nested Blocks and Variable Scope, Operators in PL/SQL, Using Bind Variables, Programming Guidelines, Determining Variable Scope, SQL Statements in PL/SQL, Retrieving data in PL/SQL. Manipulating Data using PL/SQL, Inserting Data, Updating Data, Deleting Data, Naming Conventions, Commit and Rollback Statements, SQL Cursor, and Cursor Attributes.

Writing Control Structures: Controlling PL/SQL Flow of Execution, IF statements, IF-THEN-ELSE Statement Execution Flow, IF-THEN-ELSEIF Statement Execution Flow, Building Logical Conditions, Logic Tables, Boolean Conditions, Iterative Control; LOOP Statement, Basic Loop, FOR Loop, While Loop.

Creating Procedures: Overview of Procedures, Syntax for Creating Procedures, Developing Stored Procedures and its Advantages, Creating a Stored Procedure, Procedure Parameter Modes, Creating Procedures with Parameters, IN and OUT parameters and Usage, DEFAULT Option for Parameters, Removing Stored Procedures.

Writing Cursors: Introduction to Cursors (Implicit and Explicit), Explicit Cursor Functions, Controlling Explicit Cursors, Declaring, Opening and Closing the Cursor, Fetching data from the Cursor, Explicit Cursor Attributes (%ISOPEN, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT), controlling multiple fetches, Cursors and Records, Cursor FOR Loops, Cursor FOR Loops using Sub Queries.

Triggers: Types of Triggers: Row-Level Triggers, Statement Level Triggers, BEFORE and AFTER Triggers, INSTEAD of Triggers, Valid Trigger Type, Trigger Syntax, Combining Trigger Types, Enabling and Disabling Trigger, Replacing Trigger, Dropping a Trigger.

Development of Data Base Applications (Application Domain): Student database for School, Employee database for a company, Library Database for Library Student database management system for school, Employee database management system for a company, Library Database management system for Library, Railway Reservation System, Hotel Reservation, Inventory Control System.


Time Duration: 3 hours
Total Marks: (25 marks)

1. Hands On Experience: (13 marks)
A problem should be given covering the following features.

1. Start a Standard Exe Project and it should contain MDI form with Menu Bar and Tool Bar (with Images).

2. Table structure in the database for the application with Constraints (Primary Key, Foreign Key, Check, and Unique)

3. A New Form to place an ADO component on it, for accessing data in table Stored Procedure to perform transactions/conditional update.

4. Trigger (any)

5. Making executable files of project.

2. Records (4 marks)

1. Create an Application using Visual Basic for Students Information System Having a Student Table in Relational Database and a Student Data Form in Visual basic to enter data into the database.

2. Create an Application using Visual Basic for Criminals Information System Having a Criminal Table in Relational Database and a Criminals Data Entry Form in Visual Basic to enter data into the database. The Data entry form should contain form level and Field level checks using procedures.

3. Create an Application using Visual Basic for Nursing Home Automation System having Linked tables (for example : Patient, Employee, Bill) in Relational Database and a required Data Entry Forms in Visual Basic to enter data into the database. The Data entry form should contain form level and Field level checks using procedure. Use of Bound Controls and Sub-Forms are to be encouraged in this application.

4. Create a database handling application for Student Expert System. Following features are to be incorporated in the application:
(a) Create following linked tables of Student in the Relational Database.

(i) Student Master: containing general information about the student.
(ii) Student Detail : Table to store data having details such as Class, Section, Marks and other relevant information.
(iii) Student Fee Detail : Should contain details like Financial Year, Class, Fee, Fee Status (such as Paid and unpaid).
(iv) Accounts: General Accounts table to store fee collection details such as received from, date, cheque no. and other relevant information.

(b) The database should have Procedures to update data, Insert data and to perform other database transactions.

(c) Database triggers should also be defined wherever automatic data modification is required.

(d) Visual basic forms for data entry.

(e) Procedures in Visual Basic to perform Database Transactions and Commit changes made.

(f) Reporting tool to make the MIS reports, required to analyze data entry.

3. Project (4 marks)

The following case study is to be adopted for the development of project.

A book publishing company BR Publishing Group is in existence since 1950. They were untouched with latest technological inventions. They are still using a traditional approach of book keeping and accounts maintenance.

A company, Nova technology, introduced themselves as system integrator and developers who can change existing working system into the latest concept of paper less office. They wanted few details from the company about its working. The details are as under:

  • Name of the company is BR Publishing Group.
  • The company is having 20 employees. One Managing Director, Two Managers (Work manager and marketing Manager) and 17 employees who work as a team for book publishing.
  • The company publishes book in different Indian languages and different topics.
  • Every book involves an Author and its detail.
  • The book is sold in the market at a variable discount options.Book Seller : 30%Schools: 20%Customer: 15%
  • The company is maintaining information about Author and all its details such as Personal Information, Royalty etc.
  • The company manages information about the book such as Book Name, Author, Quantity Sold, Quantity in Stock, etc.
  • The company maintains Customer (Book Sellers) information, Books Sold, Subject, Language, and Amount Pending etc.
  • Reports are required at different levels, such as Customer Listing, Book Listing, Language Wise Book Listing, Topic Wise Book Listing, Pending Amount Listing (Customer Wise, Book Wise), Author Royalty Detail, Bill Generation etc.

As a developer you are required to design the project and develop it as per customer needs (Developer can also visit a publishing company to collect customer details and live data). Suitable assumptions can be made during implementation. A proper normalized database is to be maintained in the RDBMS and the front end is to be developed using advanced interface controls. User-friendly interface is to be generated.

Note :— This is a sample case study. Similar type of cases can be developed on different application areas such as Library, Hospital, Transport Authority, Transporters, Wholesale Merchants, and Chemist Shops etc. The cases to be developed should preferably be obtained from live situations.

4. Viva Voce: Five questions from topics covered in the syllabus.

Reference Books:

  • Mastering Visual Basic 6 – Petroutsos (BPB).
  • Programming with Visual Basic 6 – Bay Ross (BPB).
  • Visual Basic 6 Complete – Sybex (BPB).
  • Successful Projects in Visual Basic – Christopher (BPB).
  • Oracle 8 : The Complete Reference – George Koch, Kevin Loney (TMHP).
  • Visual Basic Black Book (IDG).
  • Programming in Visual Basic – McBride (BPB)
  • Learn Oracle 8i – Ramalho (BPB).
  • Visual Basic and ORACLE SSI Press.
  • Oracle Programming with Visual Basic – Snowdon (BPB).
  • Quan Book ‘O’ Level all Vol. – DOEACC (BPB).

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Dance

Time: 3 hrs
Total Marks: 25

One Theory Paper

1. A brief history and acquaintance with the classical styles or folk forms prevalent in the region, other than the one offered for study.

2. Acquaintance with the history of the chief exponents past and present of the dance form.

3. Acquaintance with the contents of the Abhinaya Darpana.

4. Knowledge of the following terms:

(i) Nirtta,Nritya, Natya Tandava, Lasya.
(ii) Anga, Upanga, Pratyanga.
(iii) Sthana, Chari, Gati, Mandla, Karna, Bhramari, Utplavana.
(iv) Abhinaya (Angika, Vachika, Satvika, Acharya) with special reference to Hasta—Abhinaya, Mukhaja abhinay and Netra—Abhinaya.
(v) Sangeet, Tala, Laya.
(vi) Rasa, Sthyibhava, Sanchribhava.

5. Knowledge of the Technical Terminology of the dance form.
(a) Definition of the following :
(i) Vandana,
(ii) Tthaat
(iii) Aamad
(iv) Toda/Tukra
(v) Paran
(vi) Chakardar Toda and Paran
(vii) Gatnikas,
(viii) Gatbhav,
(ix) Tala
(x) Teen Tala
(xi) Jhaptala

(b) Knowledge of Theka of Dadra, Kaharwa, Roopak

(c) Definitions of Tali, Khali, sam, Tihayee

(d) Ability of notate a Tukra/Toda, Paran alongwith its basic Tala

6. Acquaintance with the traditional costumes make up of the dance type offered.

One Practical Paper
Total Marks: 60

1. Practice of the Tatkara to teentala in all layas.

2. The students should know all the techniques and compositions of the following:-
(i) Vanda (1 mark)
(ii) Ganesh Paran (1 mark)
(iii) Tthaat (1 mark)
(iv) Aamad (2 marks)
(v) Fast Aamad (2 marks)
(vi) Pramalu (2 marks)
(vii) Tihayee (4 marks)
(ix) Gatbav (3 marks)
(x) Parhant of Tukra/Toda, Paran learnt with Tala (1 mark)

Note:- 1. The student should be taught some of these composition in Jhaptaal.
2. Ability to improvise in Nritta and Abhinaya.
3. Parhant (recitation of bols) to the basic thetka of all composition learnt.
4. Ability to play the ‘theka’ of teentala and jhaptala on the table.

Books Recommended: Any book confirming to the Syllabus.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Urdu Core

Suggested Periods: 210

1. Reading Skills
(i) Comprehension of an unseen passage (factual) of about 150 words followed by five questions.

2. Writing Skills
(i) Essay
(ii) Letter writing (Personal, business and official connected with daily life and application writing)
(iii) Precis Writing
(iv) Sentence making with the help of idiomatic phrases
(v) Advertisements

Marks : 35

A. Book 1

Jangal Ki Ek Rat
(i) One out of two extracts from the prescribed book followed by short answer type questions for comprehension.
(ii) One essay type question (100 words) on content/theme of the prescribed book.
(iii) Four short answer type questions on the prescribed book.

B. Book -II

Heroine Ki Talash
(i) One Essay type questions (100 words) on theme/content.
(ii) Four short answer type questions on characters/ events/evaluative nature.

Prescribed Text Book:
1. Jangal Ki Ek Rat by Rehan Ahmed Abbasi published by Maktaba Payam-e-Ta’ leem, N. Delhi.
2. Heroine Ki Talash by prof. M. Mujeeb published by Maktaba Jamia, New Delhi.

Recommended Book: Urdu Qawaid, published by the NCERT, New Delhi.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 Fine Arts

A Student may offer any one of the following courses:
(a) Painting

(b) Graphics
(c) Sculpture
(d) Applied Arts – Commercial Arts

The following art terminologies for all the four subjects are prescribed only for reference and general enrichment.

1. Elements of Composition: Point line form, colour, tone texture and space.
2. Principles of Composition: Unity, harmony, balance, rhythm, emphasis and proportion, abstraction and stylisation.
3. Drawing & Painting: Terminologies, Foreshortening, perspective, eye-level, fixed point of view, Vanishing point, ratio proportion, sketching, proportion sketching, drawing, light & shade, painting still-life, land-scape, anatomy, vertical, horizontal, two & three dimensional, transparent & opaque.
Materials : Paper, pencil, water, acrylic colours, tempera colours, poster colours, pasted colours, waterproof ink, canvas, hardboard.
4. Media of Composition: Collage, Mosaic, Painting mural, fresco, batik tye & dye.
5. Sculpture: Relief and round sculpture, modeling with clay, terra-cotta, carving in wood and stone bronze casting.
6. Graphics: Linocut, relief printing, etching, Lithography, Silk screen printing letter press and offset printing.
7. Applied Art: Book cover design and illustration, cartooning, poster, advertisements fornewspaper and magazine etc. Photography, computer graphic.


Time-1 hour

History of Indian Art
1. The Rajasthani and Pahari Schools of Miniature Painting.
2. The Mughal and Deccan Schools of Miniature Painting.
3. The Bengal School of Painting and the Modern Trends in Indian Art.

Unit 1 : The Rajasthani and Pahari Schools of Miniature Painting (16th Century A.D. to 19th Century A.D) 24 Pds.
Introduction to Indian Miniature Schools : Western-Indian, Pala, Rajasthani, Mughal, Central India,Deccan and Pahari.

(A) The Rajasthan Schools
(1) Original and Development
(2) Schools- Mewar, Bundi, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishangarh and Jaipur
(3) Main features of the Rajasthani Schools
(4) Study of the following Rajasthani Paintings

Raja Aniruddha Singh HeeraUtkal RamBundi
Chaugan PlayersDanaJodhpur
Krishna on swingNuruddinBikaner
Radha (Bani-Thani)Nihal ChandKishangarh
Bharat meets Rama atGumanJaipur

(B) The Pahari Schools
(1) Origin and development
(2) Schools-Basohli and Kangra
(3) Main features of the Pahari Schools
(4) Study of the following Pahari Paintings

Krishna with GopisBasohli
Raga MeghaKangra

Unit 2: The Mughal and Decca Schools of Miniature painting (16th Century AD to 19th Century A.D.) 24 Pds.

(A) The Mughal School
(1) Origin and development
(2) Main features of the Mughal School
(3) Study of the following Mughal Paintings

Krishna lifting mountGoverdhanMiskin Akbar
Babur crossing the river soneJaganathAkbar
Jahangir holding theAbul HassanJahangir
Picture of Madona
Falcon on a bird restUstad MansoorJahangir
Kabir and RaidasUstad Faquirullah KhanShahjahan
Marriage Procession ofHaji MadniProvincial
Dara ShikohMughal (Oudh)

(B) The Deccan School
(1) Origin and development
(2) Main features of the Deccan School
(3) Study of the following Deccan Paintings:

Raga HindolaAhmednagar
Chand Bibi Playing Polo (Chaugan)Gol Konda

Unit 3 : The Bengal School and the Modern trends in Indian Art 24 Pds.

I. (a) New Era in Indian art-an introduction
(b) Study of the following painting.
(1) Rama Vanquish the pride of the ocean-Raja Ravi Verma
(2) Evolution of the Indian National Flag (First- 1906, Middle- 1921 and Final 1947 Stages) : Study of the form and the colour scheme.

II. (a) Introduction to the Bengal School of Painting
(i) Origin and development of the Bengal School.
(ii) Main features of the Bengal School
(b) Contribution of Indian artists in the struggle for National Freedom Movement.
(c) Study of the following paintings of the Bengal School:
(i) Journey’s End-Rabindranath Tagore
(ii) Parthasarthi- Nandlal Bose
(iii) Radhika-M. A. R. Chughtai

III. The Modern Trends in Indian Art


(1) Study of the following Paintings:
(i) Magician-Gaganendranath Tagore
(ii) Mother and child-Jamini Roy
(iii) Woman Face-Rabindranath Tagore
(iv) Three Girls-Amrita SHer Gill

(2) Study of the following pieces of Sculpture:
(i) Triumph of Labour-D.P. Roychowdhury
(ii) Santhal Family Ramkinker Vaij

(3) Study of the following work of contemporary Indian Art

A. Painting
(i) Mother Teresa-M.F. Hussain.
(ii) Birth of Poetry- K.K. Hebbar
(iii) Gossip- N.S. Bendre
(iv) Untitled- G.R. Santosh
(v) Diagonal-Tyeb Mehta

(4) Graphic Prints
(i) Whirl Pool-Krishna Reddy
(ii) Children-Somnath Hore
(iii) Devi-Jyoti Bhatt
(iv) Of Walls-Anupam Sud
(v) Man, Woman and Tree K. Laxman Goud

(5) Sculptures
(i) Standing Woman-Dhanraj Bhagat
(ii) Cries Un-heard-Amar Nath Sehgal
(iii) Ganesha-P.V. Jankiram
(iv) Figures-Sankho Chaudhuri
(v) Chatturmukhi Aekka Yada Giri Rao

Note : The names of artists and their art work as listed above are only suggestive and in no way exhaustive. Teachers and students should expand this according to their own resources. However, the questions will be set from the above mentioned art works only.

Painting Practical

Unit 1: Nature and Object Study 60 Pds.
Studies on the basis of exercises done in class XI with two or three objects and drapery for background. Exercises in Pencil with light and shade and in full colour from a fixed point of view.

Unit 2 : Painting 60 Pds.
Imaginative painting based on subjects from Life and or Nature in water and poster colours with colour values.

Unit 3: Sessional Work 48 Pds.
(a) Five selected Nature and object Study exercises in any media done during the session, including minimum of two still life exercises. (8 marks)
(b) Two selected works of paintings done by the candidate during the year (8 marks)

These selected works prepared during the course by the candidate and certified by the school authorities as the work done in the school will be placed before the examiners for assessment.

Guidelines for Evaluation of Practical

Marking Scheme

Part I : Nature and Object Study (22 marks)
(i) Drawing (composition)
(ii) Treatment of media/colours
(iii) Overall impression

Part-II: Painting (Composition) (22 marks)
(i) Compositional arrangement including emphasis on the subject
(ii) Treatment of media colour
(iii) Originality and overall impression

PART-III : Sessional Work (16 marks)
(i) Five Selected Nature and object study exercises in any media including minimum of two still lives.
(ii) Two selected painting compositions Prepared on the basis of life and nature

Note : Sessional-work will also be evaluated on the same pattern.

Some Reference Books Suggested for Teachers :
1. “Paint Still life” by Claretta White yet to be revised (Walter T. Foster Publication)
2. “Art of Drawing” Grumbacher Library Wook (Walter T. Foster Publication)
3. “Collage” by Dixi Hall (Walter T. Foster Publication)
4. “On Techniques” By Leon Frank (Walter T. Foster Publication)
5. “More Trees” by Fredrick Gardner (Welter T. Foster Publication)
6. “How to Draw and Paint Textures of Animals” By Walter J. Wilweding (Water T. Foster Publication.)
7. “How to Draw and Pain Animal Expressions” by Walter J. Wilweding (Walter T. Foster Publication).
8. “Art of the Pencil” by Borough Johnson (Sir ISAAC Pitman & Sons Ltd., New Delhi).
9. “Design for you” by Ethel Jane Beitler (John Wilary & Sons Ltd., New Delhi).
10. “Complete Books of Artist’s Techniques by Dr. Kurt Herbers, (Thomas and Hudson, London).


History of Indian Art
1. The Rajasthan, Pahari School of Miniature Painting.
2. The Mughal Deccan School of Miniature Painting
3. The Bengal School of Painting and the Modern Trends in Indian Art.

Note :— The Syllabus of Graphics (Theory) is the same as that of painting (Theory) given earlier.

Time: 6 hrs
Marks: 60

1. Making of graphic-print through Serigraphy/Lithography/Etching and Engraving (Intaglio Process) techniques.
2. Sessional Work

Unit 1 : The students in the class are expected to opt for anyone of the following media depending upon the facilities available in their schools 120 Pds.

(a) Serigraphy
1. The history of stencils and silk screen.
2. Methods and materials.
3. The use and maintenance of the squeeze.
4. Sealing, registration for colour, work and preparation for printing.
5. Solvents for cleaning, use and characteristics of printing inks.
6. Mounting and finishing the print.

(b) Lithography
1. Introduction : Short history and the methods and material used in producing lithographic prints.
2. The use and characteristics of the Litho stone/Zinc plates.
3. The use of Lithographic Chalks and ink (Tusche).
4. Preparing for printing and use of various chemicals inking and taking proofs.
5. Papers used in lithography and getting the final Print.
6. Finishing and mounting the print.

(c) Etching and Engraving (Intaglio Process)
1. Introduction to intaglio technique with a short history, methods and materials, Etching press.
2. Preparing the plate and laying the ground (Resist) and Inking.
3. Characteristics of different types of grounds.
4. Characteristics and use of various acids.
5. Colour etching, use of stencils and marks.
6. Finishing and mounting the prints.

Unit 2 : Sessional Work
Three selected prints prepared during the course by the candidate and certified by the school authorities as works done in the school and to be placed before the external examiner for assessment.

Note : The time table to be so framed as to allow the students to work continuously for minimum of two periods at a stretch.

Guidelines for Evaluation of Practical

1. Marking Scheme:

Part I : Graphic-Composition (Print Making)- 45 marks
(i). Emphasis on the subject
(ii). Handling on the material and technique of Print-making.
(iii). Composition and quality of Print

Part: II Sessional Work
Three selected Prints 5 + 5 + 5 marks for 3 prints) = 15 marks
Note : Sessional work will also be evaluated on the same pattern.

2. Format of The Questions:

Part I : Graphic-Composition (Print Making)- 45 marks
Choose one of the print-making medium available and taught in your school viz. serigraphy, lithography, etching and engraving.
Make a Graphic-Composition on anyone of the the five subjects given below according to the possibility and suitability of the medium:
(Note : Any five suitable subjects for “Graphic-Composition (Printmaking)” are to be decided by the internal and external examiners jointly in accordance with the instruction are to be mentioned here).
Make use of line, tone and texture, exploiting the medium fully to realize composition.
Print your composition in one or two colours.
Pay special attention to print quality and cleanliness. Submit two identical prints along with all the rough layouts as your final submission.
Size of the plate:
(i) Serigraphy 30 cm x 20 cm
(ii) Litheography 30cm x 20 cm
(iii) Etching & engraving 30cm x 20 cm

3. Instructions To Decide The Subjects for Graphic Composition (Print-Making):
1. The external and internal examiners, jointly are to select/decide five subjects suitable for Graphic Compositon (Print-Making).
2. Each subject should be so designed that the candidate may get a clear-cut idea of the subject, however, any candidate can perceive a subject in his/her own way but graphic quality must be maintained in the composition.
3. The examiners are free to select/decide the subjects, but these should be according to the standard to class XII and environment of the school/candidates.

Some identified areas of the subjects for Graphic-Composition (Print-making) are given below in which some more areas may be added, ife needed :
(i) Affairs of family, friends and daily life.
(ii) Affairs of Professionals.
(iii) Games & sports Activities.
(iv) Nature.
(v) Fantasy.
(vi) National, religious & cultural events and celebrations.
(vii) Ideas personal, social, local, provincial, natuonal or international.

4. Instructions To The Examiners
1. Candidates should be given one hour break after first three hours.
2. Work of the candidates for part I & II is to be evaluated on the spot by the external and internal examiners jointly.
3. Each work of pars I & II, after assessment, is to be marked as examined and duly signed by the external and internal examiners.

Some Reference Books Suggested for Teachers:
1. “The Techniques of Graphic Art”, by H. Van Kruihingen.
2. “Printing Making, Harvewy Daniels (Hamlym).
3. “Art is Manual for Silk Screen Print Making”, by Heavy Shockler
4. “Printing Making today”, by Jules Helles.
5. “Silk Screen Techniques”, J. I. Biege Leison, Dover Publication, New York.
6. “Introducing Screen Printing”, Anthony Kinsey Walson Guplill, New York.
7. “The Art and Craft of Screen Process Printing”, Kosloff, All the Bruce Publicshing Co…, New York.
8. “Practical Screen Printing”, Stephen Russ, Studio Vista Walson Auptill, New York.
9. “Artists Manual for Silk, Screen Print making”, Harry Shekler, American Artist’s Group’ New York.
10. “Lithography”, Vau Nostrav, Reinnold.
11. “Lithography for Artists”, Standley Loues, Oxford University Press.
12. “Linocuts and woodcuts”, Michael Rothemstein Studio Vista, London.
13. “Relief Printing”, Michael Rothenstein Studio Vista London.
14. “Etchin, Engraving and Intaglio Printing”. Anthony Grossl Oxford University Press.
15. “The Art of Etching”, E.S. Sumaden Gouslable, London.


Time: 1 hrs
Marks: 25

History of Indian Art
1. The Rajasthan Pahari School of Miniature Painting.
2. The Mughal Deccan School of Miniature Paining.
3. The Bengal School of Painting and the Modern Trends in Indian Art.

Time: 6 hrs
Marks: 60

Unit 1 : Modelling in Relief-60 Pds.
Unit 2 : Modelling in Round-60 Pds.
Unit 3 : Sessional Work-48 Pds.

Four pieces of Works prepared during the course selected by the candidate and certified by the school authorities as work executed in the school are to be placed before the examiners for assessment.

*Modelling of simplified human figures, birds, animals and plants in relief and round. Geometrical shapes like cube, cone, cylinder, etc.and their composition in relief as an exercise in design study of textures. Use of plaster of Paris.

Note : The time table to be so framed as to allow the students to work continuously for minimum of two periods as a stretch.

Guidelines for Evaluation of Practical

1. Marking Scheme:

Part I : Modelling in Relief
(i) Composition including emphasis on the subject
(ii) Handling of media
(iii) Creative approach & overall impression

Part II : Modelling in Round
(i) Composition including emphasis on the subject
(ii) Handling of media
(iii) Creative approach & overall impression

Part III : Sessional Work
Four works of Sculpture consisting of :
(a) (i) One Sculpture in Relief (High Relief)
(ii) One Sculpture in Relief (Low Relief)
(b) Two Sculpture in round

Note : Sessional work will also be evaluated on the same pattern.

2. Format of the questions :

Part I : Modelling in Relief: Make a Sculpture in Relief (low/high) on anyone of the following five subjects, The size should be within 25 to 30 cm. (horizontally or vertically) and about 4 cm. in thickness from the board.

Note : Any five suitable subjects for “Modelling in Relief” are to be decided by the external and internal examiners jointly in accordance with the instructions and are to be mentioned here.

Part II : Modelling in Round :Prepare a Sculpture in round, in clay medium, on anyone of the following five subjects. The height should be within 25 to 30 cm. horizontally or vertically.

Note : Any five suitable subjects for “Modelling in Round” are to be decided in accordance with the instructions and are to be mentioned here strictly just before the start of the examination for Part II.

3. Instructions to decide the subjects for Modelling in Relief and Round :

(1) The examiners are to select/decide five subjects suitable for Modelling in Relief and five subjects for Modelling in round, The subjects for “Modelling in Round” are to be conveyed to the candidates strictly just before the start of the examination for Part II.
(2) Each subject should be so designed that the candidate may get a clear-cut idea of the subject, however, a candidate can perceive a subject in his/her own way. Distortion of human/animal forms may be allowed.
(3) Choice of high or low relief should remain open to the candidates.
(4) The examiners are free to decide the subjects but they should be according to the standard of class XII and environment of the school/ candidates. Some identified areas of the subjects for Modelling in Relief are given below in which some more areas may also be included :
(i) Nature Study
(ii) Design, nature, decorative, stylized and geometrical
(iii) Family, friends and daily life
(iv) Birds and animals
(v) Games and sports activities
(vi) Religious, social and personal activities
(vii) Cultural activities
(viii) Ideas – Personal, social, local, provincial, national and international.

4. General Instructions to the examiners :

1. Candidates should be given one hour break after first three hours.
2. Work of the candidates of Parts I, II and III, is to be evaluated on the spot by the external and internal examiners jointly.
3. Each work of Parts I, II and III after assessment, is to be marked as examined and duly signed by the external and internal examiners.

Some Reference Books Suggested for Teachers :
1. “Indian Sculpture”, by Chintaman Kar.
2. “Exploring Sculpture”, by Jan Amdell Mills & Boon, London.
3. “The Technique of Sculpture”, John W. Mills, P.T. Patsford Ltd., London.
4. “A History Sculpture of the world”, Shelden Cneey, Thame and Hudson, London.
5. “Form and Space”, Edward Their, Thomes and Hudson; London.
6. “Sculpture and Ideas”, Michael F. Andrews.
7. “Modern Sculpture”, Jean Selz, Heinemann, London.
8. “Creative Carving”, (Material techniques appreciation), Dons Z. Meilach, Pritam Publishing.


Time: 1hour

History of Indian Art
1. The Rajasthan Pahari School of Miniature Painting.
2. The Mughal Deccan School of Miniature Painting.
3. The Bengal School of Painting and the Modern Trends in Indian Art.

Note : The Syllabus of Applied Art-Commercial Art (Theory) is the same as that of Painting (Theory) given earlier.

Time: 6 hours
Marks: 60

Unit 1 : Illustration
Study of techniques of Illustration on given subjects and simple situations supported by Drawing from life and outdoor sketching in different media suitable for printing.

Unit 2 : Poster
Making a poster with specified data and slogan on a given subject in two or four colours.

Unit 3 : Sessional Work
Submission of portfolio consisting of :
(i) Five selected drawings in any media done during the year including minimum of two illustrations.
(ii) Two selected posters in chosen subject.

Note : The time table to be so framed as to allow the students to work continuously for minimum of two periods as a stretch.

Guidelines for Evaluation of Practical

1. Marking Scheme :

Part I : Illustrations
(i) Composition including quality of drawing
(ii) Emphasis on the subject with a specific situation
(iii) Reproducing quality and overall impression

Part II : Poster
(i) Layout and Lettering
(ii) Emphasis on the subject
(iii) Proper colour scheme and overall impression

Part III : Sessional Work
(i) Five selected drawings in any media including minimum of two illustrations.
(ii) Two selected posters in chosen subjects

Note : Sessional work will also be evaluated on the same pattern.

2. Format of the questions :
Part I : Illustration
Make an illustration in black and white in any colour media on anyone of the following five subjects with a specific situation. Size of the illustration : 30 cm × 22 cm.

Note : Any five suitable subjects or illustration, decided by the external and internal examiners jointly in accordance with the instructions are to be mentioned here.

Part II : Poster
Prepare a poster-design with specified data and slogan in English/ Hindi language, in three flat colours, on anyone of the following five subjects. The designing of the poster should have balanced use of typography and illustration.
Size of the Poster-design: 1/2 imp size.

Note : Any five suitable subjects for poster design decided by the external and internal examiners jointly in accordance with the instructions and are mentioned here, strictly just before the start of the examination for Part II.

3. (A) Instructions to decide the subjects for illustration :
1. The examiners are to select/decide five suitable subjects.
2. Each subject should be given a specific situation, which is a main characteristic of an illustration
3. Each subject should be so designed that the candidate may get a clear-cut idea of the subject and they can illustrate a specific situation based on given subject areas.
4. The examiners are free to decide the subjects but these should be according to the standard of the Class XII and environment of the school/candidates.
Some identified areas of the subjects for illustration are given below, in which some more areas may be added if needed.

Subject with a specific situation :
(i) Family and friends in daily life.
(ii) Professionals/professions.
(iii) Games and sports.
(iv) Nature.
(v) National events and celebrations.
(vi) Religious events and festivals.
(vii) Culture-Dance, Drama, Music and Art.

(B) Instructions to decide the subjects for Poster-design :
1. The examiners are to select/decide five subjects suitable for Poster-design.
2. Each subject should be given a specified data and slogan.
3. The data and slogan should be so framed/designed that the candidates may get a clear-cut idea of the subject.
4. The examiners must give the subjects data and slogan according to the standard of Class XII and environment of the School/Candidates.
Some identified areas for poster-design are given below, in which some more areas/subjects may be added.

1. For Advertisement on :
(i) Exercusion/Tourism.
(ii) Cultural activites.
(iii) Community & Nature Development.
(iv) Ideas-Social, national and international.
(v) Commercial products.

2. Instructions to the examiners :
1. Candidates should be given one hour break after first three hours.
2. Work of the candidates for Parts I, II & III is to be evaluated on the spot by the external and internal examiners jointly.
3. Each work of Parts I, II & III, after assessment, is to be marked as examined and signed by the external and internal examiners.

Some Reference Books Suggested for Teachers:
1. Typolog-G.M. Rege, Bombay.
2. Kalatmak Lykhai, Published by D.A.V.P.
3. Figure Painting in Water Colour, Charles Reid Watson, Guptill Publication.
4. Walter T.Foster – Objective Drawing.
5. Walter T.Foster – Human Figure.
6. Walter T.Foster – Head Study.
7. Walter T.Foster – Animal Study.
8. Walter T.Foster – Landscape.
9. Applied Art Handbook – G.M. Rege, Bombay.

Himachal Pradesh Board Syllabus for Class 12 French

One Paper
Time : 3 Hours
Marks : 85

Section-A : Applied Grammar -25 marks (50 Periods)

  • Filling up blanks with appropriate parts of speech.
  • Transformation of sentences.

  • Sentence Correction (not involving punctuation and spelling)

  • Based on chapter 18-30 of Prescribed book

Section-B: Comprehension / Reading -20 marks (30 Periods)

  • One passage from the prescribed book (Prose / Poetry)
  • One Unseen passage (variety of comprehension questions. including short answer questionsVocabulary (word attack)

Section-C : Writing Skills/Composition-16 marks (40 Periods)

  • Writing a story based on outlines provided (120 words)
  • One unaided composition based on the topics in the Prescribed book (120 words)

Section-D : Literature -24 marks (60 Periods)
(Short answer questions on prescribed texts)
Comprehension of the prescribed text (Chapter 18-30)

Poems To Be Studied:
1. Rienn’est Beau-Ch. Peguy
2. Avecton Parapluie- F. Jammes
3. Le Petit Train-Emile Henriot
4. La Petite Ville-A Ke Noailles
5. Sila Garonne-Gustave Nadaud

Grammar Topics:
XI. 1. Negative
2. Interrogative
3. Sentence reordering
4. Sentence Correction
5. Tenses of vergs (incl. Subjonctif)
6. Pronom relatif
7. Adjectif Interrogatif
8. Adjectif qualificatif

XII. 1. Sentence reordering
2. Sentence correction
3. Tenses of verbs (excluding Passe’ Simple and Passe’ Anti’ Neur)
4. Pronom interrogatif
5. Uses of infinitif
6. Pronom Personnel- all tpyes
7. Prepositions
8. Pronom indefini & adjectif indefini





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